Médinas 2030 : Scénarios et stratégies (Itinéraires géographiques) (French Edition)

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A renovation of the facade will unify the different volumes of the house and will allow recovering its original appearance in two colors.. Mass Plan Technical details Creating openings and cut-outs Extension of the basement Extension of the house to the garden Installation of solar panels. Reorganisation of offices The reorganisation of the offices of the French company Club Med had become necessary due to the restructuring of the company.

The client requested the redesign of ten spaces in this former warehouse of the North-East of Paris, now the headquarters of the company. The integration of new products needed to respect the existing visual identity of Club Med. During the project we separated open spaces into individual offices, created team work areas through removable partitions and modified the lighting, ventilation and electric infrastructure. The construction work was conducted under short deadlines during the night while the offices stayed operational. Office building transformed into apartments Thermal energy by a heat pump Solar cells on the south facade Centralized and controlled ventilation system Natural lighting - summer.

A sustainable headquarter This project deals with the construction of the headquarters of the company DIII - contemporary spaces in Obernai in Alsace. The site is accessible from the north and marked by a steep slope in the south-west. A series of houses and villas of different sizes and types form the neighborhood.

To integrate the building into the site and follow the slope we divided the program into two horizontal volumes. These are partially buried or stand on retaining walls. Through the green roofs and the creation of wooded outdoor spaces the building is integrated in the site and allows the free view from the road to the valley.

DIII - ec rue G. Gouraud F Obernai Location: route de la moy. Office building, convertible into apartments - Obernai Leading architects with Bernhard Lenz - architect. To regain media attention after the opening, Mandarina Duck sought a series of temporary events. Not wanting to saturate the space with more design elements, we proposed an intervention on another level which would complement the existing layout.

We created a series of temporary installations which could be appreciated by different senses, like temperature, odour, and feelings. The project required the design of corporate identity. Thereafter this identity was used for the development of the interior design of this agency and for the future subsidiary companies.

The office extends itself on the ground floor and the basement. The importance of this project is the large open space, creating a visual bond between the two levels and transforming the basement into a pleasant and luminous space for the employees and the customers. Jaques F Paris Programme: Interior design of an travel agency Mission: Design, tender, construction supervision. Building a glacier With its chalk cliffs of meters height and its unique environment, Mons Klint is one of the most spectacular natural experiences of Denmark.

The origin of this geological landscape lies in the movements of the glaciers. The principal idea of our competition entry is to represent the origin of this landscape by proposing an amorphous building entirely covered with a metal skin. This skin is designed out of a layer of metal sun shades. In the winter period, this metal skin, a good thermal conductor, leads to the natural formation of the frost and creates every morning a building completely covered in white frost: a glacier!

Mons Klint St. A different approach to the urban park The genetic modification of the plants and the new construction techniques offer new approaches to the urban park than the traditional park. The growing density of the town centres asks for a new way of seeing the urban park. The vertical garden is a park which results from the density and the complexity of the large cities. Japan Architects Co. Five vertical walls are connected by several walkways. Every building can be identified by its color.

The colors are used on different surfaces to accompany the tenants through the outside spaces, entrance halls, stairs and landing. This will give a new identity to the common spaces. The estate constitutes an extention of the larger neighboring housing estate of La Haie Griselle.

Different users cross though the site of the housing estate, as its limits are open. An urban generosity, which gives a special identity to the site. The ground floor is composed of the entrances halls, caretaker office and some flats. The installation of a ramp will give a wheelchair access to the raised landing of the elevattors. The 5 buildings propose flats 1 to 5 rooms, with a large majority of middle size flats 3 to 4 rooms. The flats are well-perceived by lodgers because they are bright and well-distributed.

The promenade is intended for an intense public life, combining different functions: culture, information, recreation, commerce, community Is the great urban forum. The city centre was built according to the principles of urbanism slab. The urban renewal process, initiated ten years ago, is based on city blocks structured by the road network. The Town Hall is the central point of the esplanade and the square. We propose that the esplanade of the city hall comes is sequenced in different uses from west to east: gardens, sports and games, festive, panorama. The esplanade is intended for an intense public life, combining different functions: culture, information, recreation, commerce, community It is the space of local expression and citizen participation.

Development of the city-centre - Bobigny Architects-urban planners with MTA - landscape architect, Ingetec - engineers. The urban sequences seen from the railway lines Railways are urban cuts, but also the main entrance to the city with thousands of daily travelers. A disadvantaged urban area The train station of Juvisy-sur-Orge is a transportation hub with over trains, buses and nearly 60 commuters daily.

The largest train station of Ile de France outside Paris. Buts the areas around the station do not take advantage of this node of communication. Penalized by the urban separation through the rails and the national highway N7, subjected to population pressure and a growing poverty of its inhabitants, the old centre around the train station has been gradually asphyxiated by the non-renewal of its housing stock.

Today the urban renewal is for the district Pasteur a major urban and social challenge. The buildings affected by the deterioration of housing are concentrated in three areas. These areas were defined in order to focus the actions on the housing conditions accompanied by interventions in public spaces and shops.

Superposition of uses according to the period of time The redevelopment of the city centre and a better integration of the Charras Centre are assured through an improved urban continuity. It is about creating urban sequences, active ground floors, permeable and welcoming spaces. With this demographic development the urban form has also changed. In the 70s, the construction of the Centre Charras partially erased the traces of ancient historical centre. Today there are only few pre-war buildings. The adoption of new architectural and urban concepts together with growing land values led to the construction of new urban forms offices, housing that replaced the older buildings.

The centre has nevertheless managed to preserve an identity and a commercial dynamism. This centrality as administrative, commercial and sports centre is still a place for local animation.

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But its sustainability requires a renewal of the offer of services and commerce and the rehabilitation of public spaces. Organization of the three typologies The site analysis has identified three major urban and landscape structures in the project area: they support our three urban organizations, each adapted to the territory in which it fits.

The project builds on the local characteristics of a site in a great landscape to propose an urban fabric, which is capable to respond to the main challenges of the site: offering new diversified housing, building a city of proximity, giving access to services, shops, public transport and alternative transport modes, enhancing the biodiversity The project aims to provide a densification of the site by the factor 4 multiplying by four the number of housing on the sector , to diversify the functions of the area and to strengthen its different identities while not denying the existing urban fabric, the local population and the geographic of the site.

The proposed densification is linked with the creation of high quality public spaces, connected to their urban environment and valorising the biodiversity. Master plan of the urban project. Elevations and sections of the architectural project Competition Surface: 11 ha Planning time: Client:. A detailed design work is done on the shared spaces, the thresholds of the buildings and their rehabilitation.

The Livron is a housing block of 4.

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Today, there are dwellings and some small shops. The national program ANRU has scheduled the demolition of housing block, a new division of land property and the residentialisation of the remaining buildings. In our proposal, we open the plot to its surroun-. We plan to reconfigure the public space to articulate the interior of the plot with the urban space; to extend the secondary circulation grid into the grid; to implement the new buildings in east-west direction and parallel to the slope. The development has the objective to clarify the structure of the open space, to open and to encourage social diversity through the construction of new housing typologies.

Restructuring of a sensitive urban zone - Annemasse Urban planners with MTA - landscape architect, Saville - urban strategy. The site of study is located north of the centre of Choisy-le-Roi and 12 km south from the centre of Paris. It is one of the few municipalities in IdF which extend on both sides of the Seine. The site of 12 ha is crossed by a railway in NS direction and the highway A86 in EW and is situated south of the Ardoines in Vitry-sur-Seine, an industrial area of ha in transformation.

It is characterized by a heterogeneous urban fabric, composed by infrastructure, wasteland, local activities, warehouses, commercial premises and old factories used by artists and individual houses. Our study aims to develop a general plan which links the sector with a series of major urban projects, creates connections between local and regional scales and serves as a framework for a mixed-use urban quarter.

New square for the neighborhood in front of the former factory Call for tender Surface: 12 ha Planning time: Client:. Overlay of the thematic analyses To determine the urban and green potential and capacity of the site, we developped a thematic analysis and an overlay of the thematic maps in a summary map. Real estate valuation Located less than an hour from Paris by train, the manor of Liancourt stretches on steep woodland of thirty acres, includes a castle built in overlooking a park and a forest. Transformed into a sanatorium prison in , the area is now largely abandoned.

In fact, among the buildings, only the detention centre in the south-east of the area is still occupied. The restructuring of the ancient manor of Liancourt is the subject of a study to evaluate the real estate property for the ministry of justice, including the woodland of twenty acres, the castle and the other buildings built in the course of time.

Valorisation of a former penitentiary site - Liancourt Urban planners with MTA - landscape architect. It involves the construction of 35 housing units, a seminar and festival room for approximately people and a swimming pool with additional buildings on the adjoining premises. The parking slots are grouped on the entrance of the site and allow creating a green corridor between the entrance and the woods. The houses are lined up in two rows north-south orientation parallel to the green connection.

A large open space in the centre of the village brings the landscape in between the settlement. The rows of houses are interspersed by public spaces, connected by a non-linear east-west route. Alphonso avec la place Pierre Curie. Alphonso sur la placette de la maison de quartier. The rehabilitation of the housing estate is the opportunity to reinforce and integrate itself in the local urban fabric and to redefine its external spaces that had been neglected through a careless design.

The parking lots have been grouped together and the circulation have been reduced to the minimum. The exterior areas have been allotted to different zones and functions and a new square at the entrance creates the new connection with its surrounding neighbourhood. Rehabilitation of the external spaces Creating connections between the neighbourhoods Implication of the habitants in the planning process Reconnecting with the neighbourhood. Baert and rethink Planning and realisation by Octa Paysagistes. City of Ivry-sur-Seine Espl G. External spaces of a housing estate - Ivry-sur-Seine Urban planners with Olivier Baert - landscape architect.

Intermediate phase of the development of the housing area with caravans, family plots, adapted habitat. The landscape of this sequence of the Orge Valley is structured by a gradation of staged landscape units. The control of the transformation of the territory through changes in agriculture and urban pressure will or will not allow to maintain the quality of the sites.

The regional area of the Joncs Marins stretches on ha in the valley of the Orge and is rich in diverse natural and built forms. Different forms of housing, educational and sports facilities are situated alongside production sites, warehouses and craft workshops. Agricultural fields lay alongside meadows, fields, woods and rivers. But a development without a general scheme, an uncontrolled and rampant urbanization has fragmented the site over the years.

Various forms of habitat are scattered over the site. Small apartment buildings in good condition and recent detached houses, aside the development of shacks, but also old houses with very modest aged homeowners. These changes were prevented or greatly attenuated by telmisartan regimen. LVH is accompanied by series changes of protein expression. Both LVH and proteomic changes can be prevented by blockade of renin. Angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE inhibitors reduce mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, need for revascularization, nephropathy, and diabetes and its complications.

Although angiotensin-II receptor blockers ARBs have been less extensively evaluated, theoretically they may have "protective" effects similar to those of ACE inhibitors, but with better tolerability. Currently, there is uncertainty about the role of ARBs when used alone or in combination with an ACE inhibitor in high-risk populations with controlled hypertension. The primary outcome for both trials is the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure. High-risk patients with coronary, peripheral, or cerebrovascular disease or diabetes with end-organ damage are being recruited and followed for 3.

Baseline patient characteristics are comparable to the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation HOPE trial, the basis of the design of the current study, confirming that patients are at high-risk. Rosuvastatin, a hydroxy methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor; telmisartan , an angiotensin receptor blocker; and amlodipine, a calcium channel inhibitor, are commonly prescribed together for the treatment of hypertension nonresponsive to monotherapy and accompanied by dyslipidemia.

However, the pharmacokinetic interactions among these 3 substances are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions among rosuvastatin, telmisartan , and amlodipine in a healthy Korean male population. In both parts of this randomized, open-label, multiple-dose, 2-part, 2-period crossover study, subjects aged 19 to 55 years were enrolled. In both parts, there was a day washout period between treatments. Adverse events AEs were assessed via interviews and physical examinations. Forty-eight subjects were enrolled, of whom 19 in part 1 and 22 in part 2 completed the study.

Dans, Antonio L. Clinicians in Asia doubt tolerability of these doses for their patients. The primary composite endpoint was death caused by cardiovascular disease, acute MI, stroke, and hospitalization because of congestive heart failure. The primary outcome was the same. Furthermore, telmisartan was better tolerated than ramipril. This advantage was greater among Asians. Regulatory agencies require reporting of safety and effectiveness data by. In this week, randomized, controlled trial, adults continued HIV-suppressive ART and received telmisartan or no drug.

Collagen I, fibronectin, and phosphorylated SMAD3 pSMAD3 deposition in lymph nodes, as well as collagen I, collagen VI, and fibronectin deposition in adipose tissue, were quantified by immunohistochemical analysis at weeks 0 and Two-sided rank sum and signed rank tests compared changes over 48 weeks. Forty-four participants enrolled; 35 had paired adipose tissue specimens, and 29 had paired lymph node specimens.

The median change overall in the percentage of the area throughout which collagen I was deposited was In lymph node specimens, pSMAD3 deposition changed by In adipose tissue, changes in collagen VI deposition Protective effect of telmisartan against progressive oxidative brain damage and synuclein phosphorylation in stroke-resistant spontaneously hypertensive rats. Previously, we reported that reactive oxygen species and signaling molecules of angiotensin II produced lipid peroxides, degenerated proteins, and injured DNA after cerebral ischemia in normotensive Wistar rats.

These data suggest that persistent hypertension in SHR-SR strongly potentiate the markers of oxidative damage AGEs and 4-HNE and abnormal accumulation of pSyn, which were greatly suppressed by telmisartan in a dose-dependent manner without and with lowering of BP. Published by Elsevier Inc. The effect of the angiotensin II receptor, type 1 receptor antagonists, losartan and telmisartan , on thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

It has been reported previously that the density of angiotensin II receptors is increased in the rat liver in experimentally-induced fibrosis. We hypothesized that pharmacological blockade of angiotensin receptors may produce beneficial effects in models of liver fibrosis.

Rats received daily injections i. Chronic treatment with losartan and telmisartan was associated with a significant reduction in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, and decreased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor beta-1 compared to controls. We also found a significant reduction interleukin-6 in rats receiving telmisartan P telmisartan group compared to the TAA alone controls. Finally, histological evaluation of liver sections revealed losartan and telmisartan treatment was associated with reduced inflammation and liver fibrosis.

Taken together, these results indicate that both telmisartan and losartan have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties in the TAA model of liver fibrosis. These finding add support to a growing body of literature indicating a potentially important role for the angiotensin system in liver fibrosis and indicate angiotensin antagonists may be useful agents for fibrosis treatment. The objective of the present work was to obtain pH independent and improved dissolution profile for a poorly soluble drug, telmisartan using liquisolid compacts. The formulations were evaluated for drug excipient interactions, change in crystallinity of drug, flow properties, and general quality control tests of tablets using Fourier transform infrared FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry DSC , X-ray diffraction XRD , angle of repose, and various pharmacopoeial tests.

In vitro dissolution studies were performed at three pH conditions 1. The formulation was found to comply with Indian pharmacopoeial limits for tablets. FTIR studies confirmed no interaction between drug and excipients. Dissolution media were selected based on the solubility studies. The optimized formulation showed pH independent release profile with significant improvement P Telmisartan improves survival and ventricular function in SHR rats with extensive cardiovascular damage induced by dietary salt excess.

Excessive dietary salt intake induces extensive cardiovascular and renal damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats SHR that may be prevented by antihypertensive agents. This study examines whether salt-induced cardiac damage may be reversed by angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade telmisartan. After 8 weeks on their respective diets, systemic hemodynamics and indices of left ventricular LV function were determined.

Rats from these latter two groups were monitored for the ensuing 30 days. After switching to regular chow, only one of 11 rats in the HSnoT group survived for the 30 days, whereas 10 died within 18 days; in the HSArb group only one of nine rats died; eight survived 30 days P Telmisartan significantly improved LV function and survival in those SHR rats having extensive cardiovascular damage induced by dietary salt excess.

Protective effects of telmisartan and tempol on lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation, and amyloidogenesis: possible role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Angiotensin II has pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant potentials. We investigated the possible protective effects of the Angiotensin II receptor blocker telmisartan , compared with the superoxide scavenger tempol, on lipopolysaccharide LPS -induced cognitive decline and amyloidogenesis. Briefly, mice were allocated into a normal control group, an LPS control group, a tempol treatment group, and 2 telmisartan treatment groups.

Finally, histopathological examination of cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum sections was performed using routine and special Congo red stains. In conclusion, tempol and telmisartan are promising drugs in managing cognitive impairment and amyloidogenesis, at least via upregulation of BDNF with inhibition of neuroinflammation and oxido-nitrosative stress. Traumatic brain injury affects the whole body in addition to the direct impact on the brain. The systemic response to trauma is associated with the hepatic acute-phase response.

To further characterize this response, we performed controlled cortical impact injury on male mice and determined the expression of serum amyloid A1 SAA1 , an apolipoprotein, induced at the early stages of the acute-phase response in liver and plasma. After cortical impact injury, induction of SAA1 was detectable in plasma at 6 hours post-injury and in liver at 1 day post-injury, followed by gradual diminution over time.

To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that SAA1 is induced in the liver after traumatic brain injury and that telmisartan prevents this response. Elucidating the molecular pathogenesis of the liver after brain injury will assist in understanding the efficacy of therapeutic approaches to brain injury. Current guidelines recommend low dietary salt intake LDS in patients with diabetes to reduce blood pressure BP.

However, low salt intake has been associated with higher mortality rates in people with diabetes. Following a 6-week washout, the protocol was repeated in reverse. Twenty-four-hour urinary sodium excretion 24hUNa , ambulatory BP ABP monitoring and blood tests were performed before and after each study phase. Antitumoral, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, and antioxidant effects of an octanuclear copper II - telmisartan complex with an hydrophobic nanometer hole.

The crystal structure at K was solved by X-ray diffraction methods. The octanuclear complex is a hydrate of but otherwise isostructural to the previously reported [Cu8Tlm16] complex. The Cu II ions are in a distorted bipyramidal environment with a somewhat twisted square basis, cis-coordinated at their core N2O2 basis to two carboxylate oxygen and two terminal benzimidazole nitrogen atoms. Cu8Tlm16 has a toroidal-like shape with a hydrophobic nanometer hole, and their crystal packing defines nanochannels that extend along the crystal c-axis.

Several biological activities of the complex and the parent ligand were examined in vitro. The antioxidant measurements indicate that the complex behaves as a superoxide dismutase mimic with improved superoxide scavenger power as compared with native sartan. The capacity of telmisartan and its copper complex to expand human mesangial cells previously contracted by angiotensin II treatment is similar to each other. The antihypertensive effect of the compounds is attributed to the strongest binding affinity to angiotensin II type 1 receptor and not to the antioxidant effects. The cytotoxic activity of the complex and that of its components was determined against lung cancer cell line A and three prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, PC-3, and DU The complex displays some inhibitory effect on the A line and a high viability decrease on the LNCaP androgen-sensitive line.

From flow cytometric analysis, an apoptotic mechanism was established for the latter cell line. Telmisartan and CuTlm show. Two chemometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide. The calibration of PCR and PLS-1 models was evaluated by internal validation prediction of compounds in its own designed training set of calibration and by external validation over laboratory prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical preparations. The PCR and PLS-1 methods require neither any separation step, nor any prior graphical treatment of the overlapping spectra of the two drugs in a mixture.

Design and optimization of a chemometric-assisted spectrophotometric determination of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical dosage form. Hepatic expression of serum amyloid A1 is induced by traumatic brain injury and modulated by telmisartan. One hundred and fifty nine hypertensive patients with carotid atherosclerosis were randomized to the administration of control group, telmisartan group, rosuvastatin group, and combination group telmisartan plus rosuvastatin base on hydrochlorothiazide treatment.

Blood pressure level markedly reduced in four groups. The role of the angiotensin II type I receptor blocker telmisartan in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a brief review. The spectrum of NAFLD includes conditions that range from simple hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

NAFLD is correlated with liver-related death and is predicted to be the most frequent indication for liver transplantation by Insulin resistance is directly correlated to the central mechanisms of hepatic steatosis in NAFLD patients, which is strongly correlated to the imbalance of the renin-angiotensin system, that is involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. However, treatment with this drug is only recommended for patients with an established indication for anti-hypertensive therapy.

Thus, there is an increased need for large randomized controlled trials with the aim of elucidating the effects of telmisartan on liver disease, especially NAFLD. The effects of dual and triple combinations of trandolapril, telmisartan , and verapamil on overt proteinuria in the patients with diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy DN is one of the most important causes of the end-stage renal failure and its prevalence is found to be increasing.

The presence of hypertension and progressive proteinuria is among the important findings. In this study, the effects of double and triple combinations of trandolapril, telmisartan , and verapamil on proteinuria were investigated in diabetic patients with nephropathy. Seventy-eight patients mean age: At the end of a three-month therapy, within and between group comparisons were done about the effects of the use of double or triple drug combinations on proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate GFR , electrolytes, serum albumin, low-density lipoprotein LDL - cholesterol, and HbA1C.

There was no significant difference among groups in terms of age, gender, diabetes duration, body mass index, and retinopathy frequency. The decreases in proteinuria and mean arterial blood pressure MABP were significant in all groups. After a second washout, the regimen was repeated with supplements in reverse order. AER and ambulatory blood pressure were measured at weeks 0, 4, 8, 14, 18, and Changes in AER were independent of changes in blood pressure.

By contrast, when there is already a suppressed renin angiotensin aldosterone system under habitual high dietary salt intake, the additional NaCl does not alter the AER response. Ekinci, Elif I. Kimura, Hideki, E-mail: hkimura u-fukui. These results provide a novel insight into inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis. Hypertension and dyslipidemia are 2 risk factors of cardiovascular disease that often present simultaneously.

Traditionally, treatment of these multiple conditions required separate medications for each disease, which may result in poor compliance and thus lead to possible treatment failure. Fixed-dose combination FDC therapy with a single pill may be a solution in these situations. This multicenter, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, Phase III study evaluated the efficacy and safety of FDC treatment with telmisartan 80 mg and rosuvastatin calcium 20 mg in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia.

Patients were randomly assigned to 4 groups: 1 FDC drug 80 mg of telmisartan and 20 mg of rosuvastatin ; 2 80 mg of telmisartan ; 3 20 mg of rosuvastatin; or 4 placebo. A total of patients were enrolled in the study 84 in the FDC group, 42 in the rosuvastatin group, 43 in the telmisartan group, and 41 in the placebo group.

The reduction in blood pressure was significantly greater in the FDC group than in the rosuvastatin group after 8 weeks of treatment least squares mean change from baseline, In regression analysis, higher baseline. Simultaneous determination of related substances of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide in tablet dosage form by using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method.

Objective: Telmisartan is a potent, long-lasting, nonpeptide antagonist of the angiotensin II type-1 AT1 receptor that is indicated for the treatment of essential hypertension. Hydrochlorothiazide is a widely prescribed diuretic and it is indicated for the treatment of edema, control of essential hypertension and management of diabetes insipidus. In the current article a new, accurate, sensitive, precise, rapid, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography RP-HPLC method was developed for determination of related substances of Telmisartan and Hydrochlorthiazide in tablet dosage form.

Mobile phase consisting of solvent A solution containing 2. UV detection was performed at nm. Results: During method validation parameter such as precision, linearity, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection and quantification were evaluated, which remained within acceptable limits. Conclusions: HPLC analytical method is linear, accurate, precise, robust and specific, being able to separate the main drug from its degradation products.

It may find application for the routine analysis of the related substances of both Telmisartan and Hydrochlorthiazide in this combination tablets. The effect of formulation additives on in vitro dissolution-absorption profile and in vivo bioavailability of telmisartan from brand and generic formulations. In this study, brand and four generic formulations of telmisartan , an antihypertensive drug, were used in in vitro simultaneous dissolution-absorption, investigating the effect of different formulation additives on dissolution and on absorption through an artificial membrane.

The in vitro test was found to be sensitive enough to show even small differences between brand and generic formulations caused by the use of different excipients. This significant difference was clearly shown in the published in vivo results as well. The results show that by changing excipients, the dissolution of telmisartan was not altered significantly, but the flux through the membrane was found to be significantly changed.

These results pointed out the limitations of traditional USP dissolution tests and emphasized the importance of simultaneously measuring dissolution and absorption, which allows the complex effect of formulation excipients on both processes to be measured. Moreover, the in vivo predictive power of the simultaneous dissolution-absorption test was demonstrated by comparing the in vitro fluxes to in vivo bioequivalence study results. Telmisartan on top of antihypertensive treatment does not prevent progression of cerebral white matter lesions in the prevention regimen for effectively avoiding second strokes PRoFESS MRI substudy.

High blood pressure is one of the main risk factors for cerebral white matter lesions WMLs. There is limited evidence from one randomized trial that blood pressure-lowering is able to slow WML progression. This predefined substudy comprised patients mean age, 65 years with recent ischemic stroke of noncardioembolic origin who received telmisartan or placebo during a mean follow-up of All MRI scans were centrally adjudicated for progression of periventricular and subcortical WML by 2 neuroradiologists blinded to treatment allocation.

Mean blood pressure was 3. There was no statistically significant difference in progression of the mean periventricular WML score least squares mean difference, 0. Treatment with telmisartan on top of existing antihypertensive medication did not result in significant blood pressure-lowering and did not prevent the progression of WML in patients with a recent ischemic stroke in this patient cohort.

Our analysis is limited by the relatively short follow-up period. Unique Identifier: NCT Previous findings from our laboratory and others indicate that the main therapeutic effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor AT1-R antagonists is to decrease blood pressure and exert anti-inflammatory effects in the cardiovascular system. Mean arterial pressure MAP was recorded by a tail-cuff occlusion method. Telmisartan prevents hepatic fibrosis and enzyme-altered lesions in liver cirrhosis rat induced by a choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet.

Rennin-angiotensin system is involved in liver fibrogenesis through activating hepatic stellate cells HSCs. Telmisartan Tel is an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, could function as a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activator. Here we studied the effect of Tel on liver fibrosis, pre-neoplastic lesions in vivo and primary HSCs in vitro.

The rats were fed the CDAA diet for 8 weeks to induce liver fibrosis and pre-neoplastic lesions, and then co-administrated with Tel for another 10 weeks. Tel inhibited HSCs activation and proliferation. Le Figaro. These instructional materials are designed for students with some French reading skills and vocabulary in late beginning or early intermediate senior high school French. The objectives are to introduce students to a French newspaper, " Le Figaro," and develop reading skills for skimming, gathering specific information, and relying on cognates. Relative effects of telmisartan , candesartan and losartan on alleviating arterial stiffness in patients with hypertension complicated by diabetes mellitus: an evaluation using the cardio-ankle vascular index CAVI.

At 1 year, in the telmisartan and losartan groups CAVI did not change whereas in the candesartan group CAVI showed a statistically significant decrease of 2. Although telmisartan is believed to enhance the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPAR-gamma in vitro, it did not ameliorate arterial stiffness in our patients. Candesartan, however, improved arterial stiffness independently of blood pressure lowering and without PPAR-gamma agonist action, possibly by direct action resulting from its potent affinity and binding capacity for the angiotensin II type 1 receptor.

We conclude that candesartan is a potentially useful therapy against arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Le moulage par injection a basse pression de poudre metallique est une technique de mise en forme de pieces de formes complexes. La poudre metallique est melangee avec des polymeres basse viscosite ex.

Pour faciliter l'injection dans la cavite du moule, la composition des melanges est ajustee pour diminuer la viscosite. D'une part, les melanges peu visqueux possedent une bonne moulabilite. D'autre part, le phenomene de la segregation se manifeste rapidement avec les melanges peu visqueux.

Les machines commerciales sont munies d'un canal d'injection et d'une valve qui relient le reservoir de melange et la cavite du moule. Le melange reste stationnaire dans ces composantes entre deux sequences d'injection, ce qui le rend propice a la segregation. Plusieurs brevets tentent de resoudre ce probleme en utilisant des pompes et des canaux de recirculation. Ces composantes sont difficiles a nettoyer en raison de leur complexite. Une machine a injection basse pression a ete concue et fabriquee pour l'etude de l'aptitude au moulage des melanges de tres faible viscosite ex.

Un piston d'injection puise le volume desire d'un reservoir. Ensuite, un mouvement lateral cisaille le melange a l'intersection entre le reservoir et le cylindre et bouche l'orifice de sortie du reservoir. Le cylindre est degage et peut recevoir le moule. A la suite de l'injection, le piston retourne a la position du reservoir et entre dans son orifice de sortie. Le melange residuel est retourne dans le reservoir, melange et desaere a nouveau. L'appareil a ete valide par des essais d'injectabilite avec un melange de poudre d'acier inoxydable et de liants a basse viscosite. Des essais d'injection ont montre que le melange contenant l'acide stearique a parcouru la plus grande distance dans le moule de forme.

A solid state grinding process was used to prepare the molecular inclusion complex MIC for up to 30min. Computer molecular modeling supports the presence of hydrogen bonds between guest and host and demonstrated the most probable complexes configuration. These formulations showed rapid and effective antihypertensive effect against angiotensin II in rats up to min, with statistically significant results against placebo and control in the first 30min after administration. Alhazmi, Hassan A. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a fast and simple reversed-phase HPLC method for simultaneous determination of four cardiovascular agents—atorvastatin, simvastatin, telmisartan and irbesartan in bulk drugs and tablet oral dosage forms.

The data was acquired using ultraviolet detector monitored at nm. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity. Inter-day and intra-day accuracy and precision data were recorded in the acceptable limits. Several recent studies have shown that angiotensin type 1 receptor AT1 antagonists such as candesartan inhibit the microglial inflammatory response and dopaminergic cell loss in animal models of Parkinson's disease. However, the mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of AT1 blockers in the brain have not been clarified.

We observed that telmisartan protects mouse dopaminergic neurons and inhibits the microglial response induced by administration of MPTP. The protective effects of telmisartan on dopaminergic cell death and microglial activation were inhibited by co-administration of GW Dopaminergic cell death and microglial activation were significantly lower in AT1a-null mice treated with MPTP than in mice not subjected to AT1a deletion.

Interestingly, the protective effects of AT1 deletion were also inhibited by co-administration of GW The results suggest that. Effects of captopril, telmisartan and bardoxolone methyl CDDO-Me in ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury in rats: an experimental comparative study. Renal ischemia-reperfusion IR injury is one of the most common causes of acute kidney injury. Before IR was induced, drugs were administered by oral gavage. After a min ischemia and a min reperfusion period, bilateral nephrectomies were performed. In addition, renal tissues were evaluated histopathologically and immunohistochemically.

Le pompage optique naturel dans le milieu astrophysique. Another part of this talk underlines the role of Kastler in his time, and describes his warm personality through his public reactions in front of the nuclear armement, of the Viet-Nam and Algerian wars, of the problems of political refugees Kastler was a great scientist ; he was also a courageous humanist. Colloque sur le sujet ci-dessus. Le LHC, un tunnel cosmique. Mais dans quel sens dit-on que le LHC reproduit des conditions proches du Big bang? Le Planetaire Around the World. This section, " Le Planetaire," contains an interview with Anne Slack on the American Association of Teachers of French and contemporary French culture, a review of a dictionary of familiar French for students, dates to remember, events of interest to French teachers and a general bibliography.

Text is in French. Le Eix1 functions as a decoy receptor to attenuate Le Eix2 signaling. The receptors for the fungal elicitor EIX Le Eix1 and Le Eix2 belong to a class of leucine-rich repeat cell-surface glycoproteins with a signal for receptor-mediated endocytosis. Both receptors are able to bind the EIX elicitor while only the Le Eix2 receptor mediates defense responses.

Diminuer le niveau d'exposition des populations aux particules est souhaitable. Effects of aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole versus clopidogrel and telmisartan on disability and cognitive function after recurrent stroke in patients with ischaemic stroke in the Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Strokes PRoFESS trial: a double-blind, active and placebo-controlled study. The treatment of ischaemic stroke with neuroprotective drugs has been unsuccessful, and whether these compounds can be used to reduce disability after recurrent stroke is unknown.

Patients who had had an ischaemic stroke were randomly assigned in a two by two factorial design to receive either 25 mg aspirin ASA and mg extended-release dipyridamole ER-DP twice a day or 75 mg clopidogrel once a day, and either 80 mg telmisartan or placebo once per day. The predefined endpoints for this substudy were disability after a recurrent stroke, assessed with the modified Rankin scale mRS and Barthel index at 3 months, and cognitive function, assessed with the mini-mental state examination MMSE score at 4 weeks after randomisation and at the penultimate visit.

Analysis was by intention to treat.

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The study was registered with ClinicalTrials. There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with recurrent stroke with a good outcome, as measured with the Barthel index, across all treatment groups. Summary Background The treatment of ischaemic stroke with neuroprotective drugs has been unsuccessful, and whether these compounds can be used to reduce disability after recurrent stroke is unknown. Methods Patients who had had an ischaemic stroke were randomly assigned in a two by two factorial design to receive either 25 mg aspirin ASA and mg extended-release dipyridamole ER-DP twice a day or 75 mg clopidogrel once a day, and either 80 mg telmisartan or placebo once per day.

L'astronomie dans le monde. Seven days, 6 weeks, 3 and 5 months after gamma exposure at the dose of 4. Durcissement superficiel de la fonte grise Ft25 induit par un traitement de surface dans le moule. Intraday Le Baron effects. At daily and weekly levels, serial correlation and volatility forecasts have been found to be negatively correlated Le Baron effect.

After finding a significant attenuation of the original effect over time, we show that a similar but more pronounced effect holds by using intraday measures, by such as realized volatility and variance ratio. We also test the impact of unexpected volatility, defined as the part of volatility which cannot be forecasted, on the presence of intraday serial correlation in the time series by employing a model for realized volatility based on the heterogeneous market hypothesis.

We find that intraday serial correlation is negatively correlated to volatility forecasts, whereas it is positively correlated to unexpected volatility. Jan Potocki et le "Gothic Novel". Establishes a parallel between the supernatural and fantastic qualities of Le Comte Jan Potocki's literary works, and the English gothic novels by comparing the elements of terror, mysterious atmosphere, and the supernatural beings involved.

Le laser a argon ionise est un laser a emission continue, reglee en general en multiraies de a nm. Le rayonnement de ce laser est bien absorbe par les tissus vivants, avec une action preferentielle au niveau des pigments rouges hemoglobine, myoglobine et noirs melanine. Si la zone volatilisee est tres etroite inferieure a 0,5 mm on obtient un effet de coupe.

Par rapport aux deux autres lasers egalement utilises pour leurs effets thermiques CO2 et Nd. YAG l'argon a des effets intermediaires : la coagulation sera plus superficielle qu'avec le Nd. YAG et la volatisation plus profonde qu'avec le CO2. Lors de la coupe, la necrose sur les berges sera egalement plus importante qu'avec le CO2.

Entrevue avec le Dr Charley Zeanah. Le Fort fractures constitute a pattern of complex facial injury that occurs secondary to blunt facial trauma. The most common mechanisms of injury for these fractures, which are frequently associated with drug and alcohol use, include motor vehicle collisions, assault, and falls. The analyzed studies were published between and Initial data search yielded results. The search was narrowed to exclude articles lacking in specificity for Le Fort fractures. Fifty-one articles were selected, the majority of which were large case studies, and collectively reported that Le Fort fractures are most commonly due to high-velocity MVC and that the severity of fracture type sustained occurred with increasing frequency.

The limitation of this study, similar to all PRISMA-guided review articles, is the dependence on previously published research and availability of references as outlined in our methodology. While mortality rates for Le Fort fractures are low, these complex injuries seldom occur in isolation and are associated with other severe injuries to the head and neck. Quick and accurate diagnosis of Le Fort fractures and associated injuries is crucial to the successful management of blunt head trauma.

Le continu contre l'espace. Developpement d'un catalyseur nickel-alumine efficace pour le reformage de diesel a la vapeur d'eau et etude du systeme reactionnel. Le developpement de sources d'energie alternatives fiables et efficaces est aujourd'hui une necessite. L' interet dans le reformage d'hydrocarbures liquides est ainsi croissant puisqu'il s'agit d'une voie pour l'alimentation des piles a combustible. Les piles a combustible ont une efficacite pour la conversion d'energie en electricite plus grande que celle des moteurs a combustion et font ainsi partie de la recherche de solution en efficacite energetique.

Ces piles consomment de l'hydrogene comme combustible pour produire de l'electricite, d'ou l'interet pour le reformage. En effet, cette reaction permet de produire de l'hydrogene et du monoxyde de carbone un autre combustible des piles a combustible a electrolyte solide a partir d'hydrocarbure liquide, notamment le diesel. Les piles pourraient donc etre integrees avec une unite de reformage leur fournissant directement le combustible necessaire a partir de diesel.

Dans ce projet de recherche, un nouveau catalyseur de nickel sous forme de spinelle nickel-alumine spinelle NiAl2O4 sur support d'alumine et de zircone stabilisee avec yttria a ete developpe et teste en laboratoire pour du reformage de propane, d'hydrocarbures liquides et de diesel, a la vapeur d'eau. Par ailleurs, une methode d'ajout des reactifs novatrice a ete utilisee afin de diminuer la pyrolyse precedant le reformage, en utilisant une emulsion. L'analyse du catalyseur apres cette. Le Chatelier--Right or Wrong?

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  5. Presents a class exercise designed to find out how well students understand the nature and consequences of the mass action law and Le Chatelier's principle as applied to chemical equilibria. Eman ASSI. Romanian traditional architecture — half way between the Northern Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. From Shelter to housing: An East-Mediterranean example to the traditional twig-knitted timber constructions: The Hug house. She is currently completing her Ph. She has carried out research on several topics including urban space and ethnicity, spatial forms of ethnic co-existence in Cypriot settlements, traditional domestic environments and has participated in several local and international conferences.

    Address: 46 Makedonitissas Avenue, P. Box , Nicosia E-mail address: charalambous. Introduction This paper is concerned with the ways in which traditional settlements are studied and analysed in order to facilitate knowledge and consequently preservation of cultural heritage.

    We do not have a clear mutual understanding of what exactly is cultural information and how to analyse it, provide for it or communicate it. The analysis of built form in such a way so that we understand the transmission of culture through it, is the focus of this paper. How do we see what is not there? While it is virtually impossible to link culture to built form What distinguishes one environment from another, is the nature of the rules embodied or encoded in it. Then we are more concerned with the relationship among the elements and underlying rules than with the elements themselves Rapoport, Culture is seen through her work, as composed of integrated parts, subsystems or components such as the socio-political organization.

    Kent also developed a model for studying the relationship between culture and space use based on two premises: a social complexity determines space organization and the built environment, particularly with regards to partition; b when society becomes more sociopolitically complex, its culture, social behaviour, space use and material and architectural culture, become more segmented Kent , In , Hillier and Hanson published The Social Logic of Space in which they outlined a syntactic theory for the organization of space in buildings and settlements.

    Space Syntax is an analytical, quantitative and descriptive tool that describes built space and its occupancy, helping us understand how spatial patterns constitute means through which we recognize and construct society and culture. Space syntax research sees settlements as specialised forms of spatial engineering which permit a large number of people to live in concentrations. Seen as systems of organised space4, settlements seem to have deep structures or genotypes, which vary with culture.

    The Turkish Cypriot public space was shown to be composed of irregular parts which varied in size and shape. The purely Turkish Cypriot villages. In a syntactic study of local domestic and global setllement space organisation of 14 Cypriot settlements and traditional houses Charalambous suggested that the cultural investment in space, both locally and globally, varied to a considerable degree between as well as within each ethnic group Charalambous, Conclusions can then be drawn relating the spatial information to the social.

    Ideas are in things. Culture and built form — a reconsideration. In Architecture in cultural change essays in built form and culture research , edited by D. Saile, pp. Lawrence: University of Kansas. According to Hanson , spatial relations exist where there is any type of link between two spaces. Secondly, related spaces cannot be seen all at once but require movement from one to another to experience the whole Hillier, In historic European cities, local areas are for the most part easily accessible to strangers whereas in many Arab cities strangers tend to be guided to certain public areas in the town and access to local areas is much more forbidding.

    Studying the syntactic approach one may of course wonder whether architecture is simply reduced to pure mathematical statements or numerical formulas. However, it is clear through substantial research that there are some tendencies and rules in the organization of spaces created by cultural properties. The paper suggests that space syntax can be used as a powerful tool in identifying these underlying rules.

    A substantial knowledge base is then additionally required in order to interpret the built environment under study and to attribute social meaning to syntactic data. Space syntax methods need to be supported with background knowledge comprising the social, cultural and physical characteristics of the environment under study. The intersection between opposite cultures produce hybrids and heterogeneity. Greek traditional architecture presents architectural elements distinct even between neighboring rural settlements documenting the evolution of the phenomenon. In the early 19th century Greece comprehend Peloponissos and Sterea that had been under the Turk occupation since the 15th century.

    In the early 19th century, parts of Greece like the Ionian islands and Crete —that had been under Latin occupation until then- were turned under Turkish control until their later liberation. Northern and Eastern Greece Epirus, Macedonia, Thraki and most of the islands of Aegean sea continued to be under Turkish occupation and were liberated by turns during the 20th century. European romanticism of the 18th century and consequently the development of neoclassical patterns for the built environment while a representation for the nations of the West, for Greece and most mediterrannean countries -the land where ruins of classical values were still present- were incorporated in the ideology of the new nation and functioned as part of the domestic evolution.

    Architectural heritage is constructed in the past, in historical periods with a particular beginning, duration and end and as it was decided, it should be protected by virtue of a particular legislative framework implemented in Europe since and applied by Public authorities in order to support protection and promotion policies. When this statement is applied to the built environment means that in the long run what is impaired for a culture vanish. The second historical phase corresponds to the most part of the 20th century, when Greek local identity was expressed under the search of tradition and the evolutionary theory, which formed the antipode to neoclassicism.

    In the beginning of the 20th century when north Greece was united 1st World War and millions of Greek population were transfer from Asia Minor -under the International Regulations for exchange of population- an immense reconstruction program was implemented. The third historical phase correspond to the recent and current one when traditional architectural elements for each micro-region have been implemented, creating a neo-traditional environment.

    This fact is even more apparent in areas where tourism and holidays are imposing the re structuring of the built environment. On the level of the two dimensional scale distribution of plots and street patterns it is clear that for settlements existing before the establishment of the contemporary Greek state 19th centyury , the distribution was natural in contrast with the systematic distributions of the new era. This is the most obvious characteristic that distinct traditional architecture. In Greece, the natural distributions of plots were gradually evolved from the Byzantine era and post-Byzantine periods and composed a coherent building fabric, up to the 19th century.

    By the mid 19th century Greek architecture followed simple neoclassical patterns, giving emphasis to symmetry, a threefold arrangement and a pitched roof Fig. The second phase of neo-traditional design was implemented during the years between , when a number of new settlements were designed on the basis of systematic principles for refugees coming from Asia Minor after the First World War. During this second phase of neo-traditional design that continued up to the mid 20th century, particular emphasis was given to local traditional architecture, as it was evolved in every micro-region distinctively according to the special historical events.

    In rural regions the building pattern has maintained its traditional character and the equivalent natural or systematic plans according to the time of settlement establishment until the beginning of the last quarter of the 20th century a period of population concentration in urban centers , when many rural settlements have been declined or even abandoned.

    Thenceforth, parallel to a policy of decentralization, the development of building fabric in rural settlement increased and began to expand beyond their boundaries. The coding of architectural heritage in typologies based on the criterion of architectural identity demarcates the architectural norms and types as well as the historical courses of every tradition. The architectural characteristics in Greece vary depending on the geographical region and the historical period of origin of each settlement.

    In brief even that population movement in Greece intercrossed Frank, Turk and all the other Mediterranean populations, the main body of Greek population was retreated in mountains regions were an autonomous network of settlements was created preserving the cultural varieties Fig. The period between 15th to 19th century where tradition is rooted in fact was the period that the continuity of the Greek architectural heritage survived. Greek architecture has evolved through neo-classical representation from one hand and from the other, with the use of local identity architectural elements distinct in every micro-region.

    Greek traditional architecture served as well as, prototype -with the simples and cubist forms of Aegean sea architecture- for the masters of the modern movement. It seems that. Nonetheless, recent hybridization that comes along with re constructions and neo-traditional projections -as well as the typologies just for consumption- does not constitute architectural heritage. But hybrids that will survive and what will evolve in future time perhaps will constitute architectural heritage Fig.

    Carta de Cracovia La imagen de la ciudad. Editorial Gustavo Gili S. La arquitectura de la ciudad. Ediciones Cristiandad. She has been a research assistant at the Department of Architecture in Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University since and teaches spatial organization and basic design. He was a visiting instructor at the Department of Architecture at Siegen University.

    He had his Ph. In this paper, the Aegean region is studied as it constitutes a geographical, economical and cultural integrity. Today, the cities, regions or. It is almost impossible to correlate the symbols, goods, places, societies, and historical periods to each other. In the formation of urban identity; the natural and built environment features and social identities play an important role.

    In this paper, these features will be discussed on various scales from the settlement itself to the equipments and symbolic elements. The interaction between the societies in this region -in economic, political, and cultural sense- is another factor for this comparison. Megaron type of house is a characteristic of Aegean region. The mastic trees, olive groves, and citrus gardens of the area are cut to provide space for new constructional developments Fig 1.

    The decomposition of the natural environment caused the loss of local identity. The social structure of the place has also changed. With the increase in mass tourism throughout the globalization, these settlements have lost their coastal town character, and started to look like any other place.

    All stores sell similar or same brands and products, and eventually corporate identity of them make all the market places look like each other. The symbols which help the imaginabilty of the western Anatolian towns thus have disappeared Fig 2. As for the west coasts of Aegean, this change is slower and not that dramatic. One of the reason for such a comparatively slow change can observed to be the motorway that isolates the remote settlements from the central ones.

    The settlements in Greek coasts enlarge more slowly due to the amorphous structure of the topography and the clear separation in between the old and new settlements of towns. As a consequence of its low population and better education level; as well as its legislative regulations, the existing buildings which give the place identity, are conserved and reused.

    The demand for new vacation sites, and cooperative housing implementations are not very high, therefore the local identity of the settlements have been sustained. In the selected settlements of Greece, the old symbols are still preserved. There are no new symbols competing with the lighthouse in Githio or with the belfry in Aeropolis. The identity formed by the meaning structure of new images is commercial rather than local. The commercial spaces having local features produced only for trade should not be considered as hybridization or synthesis. On the Greek coast, both Githio and Aeropolis conserve the old urban tissue, which constitute the local identity.

    In a globalizing medium, the demand and supply balance for the generation of new spaces in the Anatolian Settlements seems to have accelerated the spatial change. This acceleration is fueled by the high population and mediocre level of education. As for the settlements on the western coast of the Aegean, this balance is better maintained for reasons stated above. Yolsal , Bilim ve Sanat Yay. Mani, Greek Traditional Architecture, trans.

    Ramp, P. Major research interest is in the area of sustainable development and rehabilitation of traditional landscapes and urban areas. On the traditional systems, the resources use to be obtaining through the managements of the biosphere in order to transform the solar radiation - the power plant of the system - into materials organized properly for social use Tello, This paper proposes, through the presentation of a paradigmatic case study of a model of territory occupation that moves forward to an extensive scale, a model that allows to approach the study of the landscape - of the form of the territory - from the resources management point of view.

    The resource capture, its delivery right to the place of the agricultural production, moreover its storage and distribution do not only determine the majority of the technical elements of the system — that usually are recognized as the elements that conform the patrimony and treaties independently - but also their functional articulation, its disposition throughout the territory and, mainly, the interpretation - and often the transformation - of the topography to receive them.

    Although the works of the Royal Palace, ordered by D. The garden is the most distinguished element of the Estate. Together with the orchard a vineyard completed the agricultural production of the Estate. Indeed, the history of the Estate of Caxias can not be isolated from the history of Royal Palace of Queluz. Both Palaces, with their respective farms, were integrated in the vast patrimony of the Infantado House that administrated together both Queluz and Caxias Estates Miranda, While Queluz was chose as the permanent Royal Residence, Caxias was preferred for short stays, being mainly used during spring and summer times for rest and therapeutically sea baths proposes.

    Nevertheless, both uses, the productive and the leisure, needed to be secured with water supply and an accurate water management in order to satisfy the Estates needs. As one can testify from the legend of the plan of the Royal Estate of Caxias this enumerates several water elements, such as the great cascade, the aqueduct the well and a well house.

    Through theses elements one can easily identify how the water do arrives into the Estate, nevertheless it is not so easy to identify how the water distribution works within the Estate, even if it is possible to recognise the water deposits system that regulates it. From this perspective one can assume that great consideration was being given to the territory scale. Whereas the Royal Estate has its own borders,.

    Médinas 2030 : Scénarios et stratégies

    In fact, the water that supplies the Royal Estate of Caxias arrives not only from two water quarries located at the mediations of the Royal Estate east side limits, but also from a water quarry located at Queijas, at the Carnaxide Mountain, a territory further north to Caxias. The emphasis attributed to the above water supply system reveals a Sustainable Agenda that should be recovered. This Agenda embraces recognition to land use planning with great respect for its biophysical environment - such as climate, soil, vegetation — in order to enhance an appropriate exploitation of its natural resources.

    This strategy should be regarded at a much superior scale rather than the one of the water fountains and the cascade situated at the Royal State of Caxias. During XVIII century, several Lisbon surrounding areas assisted to great landscape transformation, with the endeavour of numerous farms and recreation gardens — Estates — of vast dimensions from which the Royal Estate of Caxias is one of these examples. This landscape order, through the planning of agro productions and its adaptability to the land use, as one can testify in the Royal Estate of Caxias seems to testify a very secure agronomic knowledge.

    Such strategic situation of the mountainous area allows taking hold of the humidity of the marine air and therefore granting the clouds formation that after rain allows the feed of the water streams and the increment of the ground water levels. The object of the study and of the rehabilitation and reutilisation - of the patrimony should not be each element treated as in an individual manner. The patrimony must be understood and rehabilitated as an articulated set of techniques, and its application throughout the territory should show us the scale to which we must realize the analysis of such articulation.

    And, reading in the opposite direction, the territorial scale is the most suitable scale to intervene on the patrimony in order to raise a sustainable technical system. Bollati Boringheri. Recantos de Oeiras, 14th November , Oeiras, p. Conclusions The present value of the patrimony consists in the reference that today the traditional knowledge conveys as a model to develop a sustainable technical system, when facing the un-sustainability that our industrial system model has already proved.

    Understand the most adequate manner to approach such knowledge is determinant to extract the lessons that we must retain and learn. The presented case study calls attention to an essential question such as the scale that the patrimony should be analysed, as to the proposition of a methodological approach to the study of the territory and the traditional landscape as an expression of a sustainable model of obtaining of the resources. It is also argued that there is no sense in the current perception of the. The study is made separately for each subject and presented in various congresses from until now.

    The publication of all study in a book is now proceeded. The study also discovers the intelligence in the techniques adapted in the subject of using the various types of stone 1. Type of construction: Dry stone techniques and material 1. Categories of structures a.

    Walls: Retaining walls-Terraces-Boundary walls b. Pavements: Village paths-Field roads and pathways-Village courtyards Pedestrian in old city centres c. Threshing Fields: Limestone construction-Earth surface construction-Gravel construction d. Kilns: Lime Kilns-Gypsum Kilns f. Water Usage structures: Wells- Fountains- Terracing 1. Reference to the documentation of the study:. Pavements: Village paths-Field roads and pathways-Village courtyards.

    Pedestrian in old city centres 2. The primitive Shelter presents an adjustment of residence and shelter in caves with addition of stone fencing a yard for the animals. Later, the intermediate shelter has an intervention of built elements with dry stone to form shelter enclosed area Construction feature: rock formation on roof and pavement, pillar with piling stone slabs, and walls of dry stone small or megalithic, form the enclosure. Cyclopean technique appears in some areas.

    In areas where there is no rock formation with cave available, primitive shelter was created by trees and bushes combined with small piles of stone. Dry stone constructed shelters present a variation of types: The circular like arrangement of spaces where a combination of areas enclosed rooms give place for all kinds of animals A more enclosed shelter combines a small yard, a covered porch and the completely enclosed animal room. Construction feature: Dry stone walls from width up to 1. And 50 c. Yards with fence and slabs on pavement.

    Arrangement of eating stone basins for the animals. Mountain shelters are dwelling for farmer and hi animal in vineyards, so they consist from an interior common for man and his animal [goat and donkey]. Thick stone walls with dry stone with thickness more that cm. Dry stone shelters are part of the architecture of a settlement when is combined with the traditional dwellings of the village. Protection and restoration must include these structures within the protection of the houses The basic technique is dry stone building of stone slabs [treaded stone] and stones untreated.

    The feature of these structures present a combination of stone and soil in all ways for economy of material and saving useful precious soil for cultivation. Pathways in areas with rock formation, with dry stone walls protecting the herd of animals and man form winds. Plies of stone cleverly piled and forms create stone paths and rumps through. Interesting detail can present the clever solutions of old mason for the water disposal, for retaining soil, for supporting the ends of horizontal surfaces.

    Slabs in slope position. The beauty of these structures is enclosed in the respect of the properties of the material available in each area: gravel stone, volcanic rock. Lime stone. The answer is a topic that is associated with the scale for landscapes protection, and preservation. Within this short paper an attempt is made to explore the cultural landscape of Ain Arik village in order to construct a model for protection and preservation of the cultural landscape at the local micro scale.

    This model could contribute to produce primary guidelines for cultural landscape protection in Palestine. This step will help to make an inventory, typology, and spatial analysis among the cultural landscape features of Ain Arik and help to prepare the categorization of the landscape areas for protection, and preservation according to values.

    The main layer in the GIS is a parcels map at scale of mater. It functions as a base map. This map was made in during the Jordanian rule of the West bank , it shows the boundary of privative lands in each percales in Ain Arik. Cartographically the percales map is to some extent based on the mapping of Ain Arik village during the British Mandate period of Palestine In order to investigate the historical landscape of Ain Arik, the British map of Ramllah in scale of which was published at , will be digitized by using the AutoCAD.

    After that it will be converted into GIS. This map shows the land use cover, ancient roads, limekilns, springs, cisterns, caves, main archaeological sites, and boundary of the traditional settlement. All this historical landscape data appears on the British map and will be extracted and then plotted on the parcels map of Ain Arik village by using GIS. Through this technical process, the parcels map of Ain Arik will include all the historical landscape features that were existing within the boundary of Ain Arik village before the date In connection with the present cultural landscape of Ain Arik, the Arial photo of Ain Arik boundary; dating , will be under the same technical process within GIS.

    In fact the Arial photo shows the present built up area, land use, and roads of Ain Arik. In this way, there is a possibility to trace the nature of the landscape changes during the period — within the boundary of Ain Arik village. As a result, the Base Map of Ain Arik will store all the information that allows it to conduct a processing analysis through inventory, typology, cauterization and spatial analysis among the cultural landscape features by using GIS. In additio n to all main archaeological sites which are located in Ain Arik and the area of the traditional settlement village of Ain Arik, must be put under high protection and included in a conservation policy.

    These areas B still have high traditional economic values, since the olive trees still play a main role in the life of Ain Arik village people and keep their traditions and olive customs, as they are still maintaining the landscape formation of Ain Arik village see Picture 2. In fact, Protection areas B require special protective conditions to use modern activities. In protection Areas C, which are mostly under the intensive use by the people of Ain Arik; the present built up area which is still expending.

    So the aim of the building regulation is to prevent the non — organization of building. This will contribute to maintain the historical perception of the cultural landscape of Ain Village. These needed protected areas are based on a variety of landscape values which are obtained from the historical maps, traditions and customs of the people of Ain Arik village and the needs of the development of the local community of Ain Arik village.

    So that these proposed protected and preserved areas play a role to maintain the landscape of Ain Arik village. They are to be supported by creating all archaeological, environmental , and agricultural, regulations, which contributes to keeping the cultural landscape in Ain Arik. Since it is considered one of the outstanding landscape in Palestine due to long its history of the human cultural activities. Table 1: Archaeological sites and features in Ain Arik village with their types, inventories, values, and cauterizations:.

    FRY, G. The rural landscape: characteristic features, values and criticalities in good policies determination Antonia Cataldo She is an architect, has a PhD in Territory Planning and a postgraduate Master in Tools for territory planning and management. She is with the DiPiST-University of Napoli since and her research interests are about territorial transformations and analysis of methods and techniques to manage them. Landscape and quality goals Italy, like many Mediterranean places, has got several rural landscapes characterized by the charming aesthetic taste. They express the functional evolution, occurred in the course of time, linked to the work technique, dwelling ways, natural dynamics and social conditions.

    Those are landscapes produced by a long adaptation, until reaching ecological essentiality and stability given by man-nature compromise. The value of aesthetic beauty represented by the elements is the most sensible indicator of landscape itself. The general impacts are positive if we consider the increase of vegetation cover, but negative from the spatial diversity point of view, because the traditional land uses have been got rid of and new landscape units have been created, being taken out of the local context and devoid of overall quality. Aiming at quality goals can produce environment quality and quality in space perception, but, above all, the exploitation of local identities.

    By accepting the European policies, Italy recognizes that rural landscape represents a cultural heritage, according to the values of memory, collective identity and recognisability it expresses. That means a landscape assessment. A methodology for the assessment The landscape analysis requires an assessing considering not only the single elements constituting it and the phenomena occurring, but also the composition and structure of landscape itself.

    It means to make a critical interpretation of the landscape complex system. The elements. The forms of rural landscape issue not only from the territory physical structure, but also from the rules entailing the use of social power to transform the territorial structures. Apart from the productive activities, we should consider various elements man-made landscape.

    Landscape Assessment. Then the indicators being useful for the assessment of the individuated elements. In the above methodology, we stressed the basic characters of the elements, which represent the potentials of the elements themselves. If, on the contrary, we consider the performance character, the following two characteristics come out:. The parameters to assess the quality and value of the elements should be already denotative and not connotative.

    If we consider the single element, we can point out : peculiarity, integrity, visual quality and rarity. Transformations assessment. We are to assess the changes produced or possible to be produced to the system by policies and strategies for managing, planning and protecting rural landscape. The incidence assessment, taking the single element into account, produces the landscape, anthropic and environment risk levels. Among functional parameters we can include: decay, vulnerability of places in undergoing the changes, instability of physical and biological components or of anthropic layouts.

    Conclusions The recent transformations of rural landscape show not only the genius loci loss, but also the identity loss of the social groups living there.

    Scenario 1 strategies

    This contribution, by following the statements of the latest European and national law and planning tools, aims at showing an analytical route of help for the planner who wants to implement the active safeguard of traditional rural landscapes. This work is based on an assessment methodology of landscape quality considering both tangible elements and the intangible, dynamic and subjective part. In the worked out assessment methodology, the individuation of meaningful parameters has referred, apart from the above-said experiences, to several Italian regulations and rules.

    In particular: the Decree of the Council of Ministers The 5th volume was edited by the Environment Analysts Association together with the I. Stefano F. Address: D. Valeur patrimoniale du tissu urbain. Since February phD candidate in Restoration in the same faculty. Address: Levazim Mah. Introduction Cunda Island, the largest and the only inhabited one among the twenty two islands of Ayvalik, is situated on the north of Aegean Sea, in Edremit Bay. A prominent Greek settlement of the Ottoman Empire during the 19th century, Cunda has a special place along the north Aegean towns with its rich cultural heritage.

    The south-western shore of Cunda faces a small island that is connected to Ayvalik town and inbetween the islands a narrow channel forms on which a bridge is built. On the southern side of Cunda, there is a natural harbour, around which the historical settlement was formed. This study aims to analyse the urbanistic and architectural values of the cultural heritage in Cunda Island, as well as present the problems concerning conservation and rehabilitation of the historical buildings. A Brief History Although there were settlements on Cunda since the prehistoric era, its importance in history starts during the 18th century.

    The majority of the population was Greek and it was ruled by the Governor of Lesbos, under the Ottoman Empire. The island had its own municipality and issued coins, which proves that Cunda was a separate entity from Ayvalik town, both administratively and economically. After s, East European communities in the Ottoman Empire started to rebel against the regime.

    These revolts stopped the economical development in Cunda until s. After the war, following the foundation of Turkish Republic, there was an exchange of population between the Greeks that lived in Turkey and Turks that lived in Greece, in Therefore, Cunda was evacuated like other Aegean towns and Turkish people settled on the island. The disastrous earthquake in made things even worse, the island was almost deserted.

    With the construction of the bridge in , the island was connected to the mainland. The enhancement of tourism after s enlivened the economical growth of the island, making it a popular place in the summer for tourists. Among the churches, the biggest, the most elaborate and the only intact one is Taksiyarhis Church The interior decoration of the church is also remarkable, however it needs urgent restoration. The other churches are Panaya, which is in ruins and Aya Yanni, which is being restored since There are also buildings around the churches, related with religious functions, but most of them are in ruins.

    The only mosque of the island, Hamidiye Mosque , is situated at the shore. Traditional Houses The houses of Cunda are similar to those seen in the Aegean region: cubical masonry units, mostly storeys high, covered with a pitched roof. The houses are adjoining, with gardens in the back. The settlement follows an orthogonal plan, forming alleys inclining towards the harbour. The main walls are usually constructed with roughly hewn stone bound with clay mortar. In large mansions or monumental buildings, ashlar stone is used. Inner walls are either constructed of timber lathing with lime plaster or masonry brick.

    Some of the entrances are raised from the street level, forming a storage basement below the entry level. Since Cunda is a rural area, this space is used for olive storage or as a water reservoir. This space can be accessed from inside the house, or in some cases, from the street with a smaller door. The position of the entrance door changes according to the presence of the basement and the projection.

    The most important threat that the historical buildings face is the lack of proper maintenance. These additions function as a toilet, kitchen or storage space. Since the historical houses do not bear the comfortable conditions of modern life, the inhabitants need to make such additions to their houses. Other than such physical problems concerning the buildings, there are also socio-economical problems concerning the islanders due to unemployment.

    Because of limited work facilities, most of the young inhabitants are forced to leave Cunda. If the historical houses are sold, they are restored by the new owners, however only to be used as a summer house i. This seasonal usage causes the historical town to be almost deserted at winter time. This study does not introduce new land proposals, but aims to enhance the existing ones for the inhabitants.

    Fundamental planning principles include, rehabilitation of the architectural heritage, integration of the public spaces with private spaces and rehabilitation of infrastructure. This way, local people would restore their own houses and young people would be employed. As a result, Cunda island is one of the rare historical settlements on the Aegean coast of Turkey, which still keeps its urbanistic integrity and architectural heritage. In order for this island to sustain its social and physical values, a holistic approach on planning decisions should be adopted, rather than planning for tourism.

    This way, Cunda and its inhabitants will integrate with the historical and natural resources. It is known that, history of the village goes to Hellenistic Period. Its importance had continued to Anatolian Turkish Principality 14th century. When the side, that Christian people lived in, became a participant of the Turkish Domination, Christian Greek people was being captured. At 19th century the village was a big settlement with houses.

    The Orthodox Greeks lived a fairly comfortable life under the domination of the Ottoman Empire in the village with their churches, monasteries and typical houses. After the First World War, The Greeks that lived in Sirince leaved the village; the Balkan immigrants were settled in the village in place of them. The people live in the village today are the descendants of these immigrants.

    After the exchange policy Turkish immigrants had settled and transformed the physical environment and have preserved the religious buildings, houses of the village, brought the settlement to nowadays. Istihlas District is situated on the east slope of Sirince Stream, with a concentrated habitation. Istiklal District is being located on the west slope of the Stream. And the houses in this district show a linear spread than Istihlas District.

    There is a little concentrate habitation than the other district. Because of the topography of the area, the settlement in the village, that is established on the south and west slope of the pot formed valley, is graded. The roads are usually parallel to the slope. The roads, which are perpendicular to the slope, are provided to reach to the village center and other important points in the village in a little time.

    But nowadays, they had lost these functions. The traditional houses, which give Sirince its character, date mostly from the 19th century, although they draw on older traditions. They typically have two or three stories depending on the slope. In this plan scheme, room is a place that has lots of functions like eating, sitting etc.

    First Type: The sofa can be situated in the middle of the two rooms, the winter room and the summer room. The winter room has a furnace. The summer room has a unique cupboard, and a unique ceiling ornament. The summer room has a unique cupboard hiding a service space behind. This type of houses has three stories. These rooms have narrow openings to outside, and form dark inner spaces. Sofa and the summer room jut on timber consoles to the street with four typical Sirince windows, two served for the sofa and two served for the summer room.

    Third Type: This type of houses consists of two-stories. The ground First Floor has only one room used as both the summer room and the winter room. The wooden ornamented cupboard, and the furnace are placed in the same room. The room has two windows facing the street. This room is reached from the Sofa. Sofa, which the staircase is located in, has two windows facing the street. The ornamented door of the summer room, the wooden ornamented cupboard in the summer room, and the furnace of the winter room, the window and the wooden ornamented balustrades of the windows, the staircase elements such as handrail are typical elements of the houses.