Southern Cross Spitfires - 79 Squadron RAAF 1939-45 by Lex McAulay

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Le Roux SA , R. Malengreau Bel , J. Manak Cz , R. Mannix USA , R. May Aus , H. McLeod Can , H. Mehre Nor , H de M. Molson Can , D. Morris UK , R. Morrison SA , T. Neil UK , J. Nicolson UK , H. Norsworthy Can , C. Peterson USA , J. Sample UK , J. Schloesing Fr , D. Seaton UK , R. Vasatko Cz , R. Watts NZ , E. Wells NZ , V. Wheeler UK , W. Supermarine Spitfire Mk. Despite a short production run of only airframes, the Mk.

Griffon motor. The Mk. XIV would be powered by Griffons. The former between April and October , whereas 91 Squadron, which became operational on type during June , was to relinquish it earlier in favour of the Mk. XIV during early Although seen by both Supermarine and the RAF as an interim version, the Spitfire Mk XII when flown by the two Squadrons - managed to establish itself as a worthy opponent to the Luftwaffe as well as to both the Wehrmacht and Reichsbahn.

Fws, Ju88s, trucks, trains, armoured vehicles, an unfortunate balloon and eventually V1s would all fall prey to the roaming Spitfire XIIs of 41 and 91 Squadrons. In the first half of the booklet, the author outlines the operations flown by both squadrons, first 41 and then 91, listing missions with victories attained and losses sustained. Numerous photographs show aircraft being flown by both units. The second half of the book is given over to the operational record, listing and totalling all sorties flown by both squadrons. Then follows a table displaying all the units which flew the Mk XII, during and after it had passed from active service.

Six pages list the many claims made by pilots. Four pages cover the service lives of known airframes - the final page is the Roll of Honour - naming the 19 young pilots of six nationalities who made the ultimate sacrifice whilst flying Spitfire Mk XIIs. This volume contains the biography of 52 pilots: D. Andrews Aus , R. Bary NZ , F. Beamish Ire , M. Beytagh UK , M. Blake NZ , E. Bocock UK , A.

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Boyd UK , R. Brooker UK , J. Browne USA , L. Chadburn Can , J. Checketts NZ , W. Christie Nor , M. Clube, UK , P. Davout Can , A. Donaldson UK , E. Donaldson UK , J. Donaldson UK , L. Gaunce Can , L. Geerts Bel , A. Gowers UK , R. Green UK , N. Harrison NZ , B. Howard Aus , F. Howell UK , H. Hrbacek Cz , S. Janus Pol , I. Kennedy Can , J. Lacey UK , F. Lister UK , J. Marchelidon Fr , R. Marples UK , P. Meagher Ire , I. Ormston Can , M. Osler SA , J. Peel UK , W. Pentland Can , H. Pinfold UK , A. Roscoe USA , W. Satchell UK , R. Sheward UK , G.

Sinclair UK , T. Smart UK , L. Spence Aus , B. Stapleton SA , J. Storrar UK , S vB. Theron SA , P. Tripe Can , P. Turnbull Aus , M. Vanderpump NZ , C. Waddy Aus , S. The Fortress Mk. II and Mk. I was only used in small numbers 20 , but, for the British, it was the first step leading to the large scale introduction of the Fortress to Bomber Command. But that never happened and all the orders were consequently cancelled after the experiment of the Fortress Mk I.

Indeed in the meantime, trials of the Fortress in Coastal Command proved satisfactory and, as this Command was looking for long-range land-based patrol aircraft, the Fortress was requested to equiq some Coastal Command squadrons. Later in the war, the Fortress would return in the Bomber Command acting as an ECM aircraft from until the end of the war, while some others would be used by the Meteorological squadrons by The unexpected usage of the Fortress of the RCAF between and is also included in this study.

The French were the first to express interest in this fighter and ordered large quantities before and during the first months of WW2. When the French ask for an armistice, all of the contracts were taken over by the British and the balance of the Curtiss H still to be delivered were shipped out to the UK where they became the Mohawk. The Mitchell was one of the major medium bombers of the Second World War.

It was operated by many air forces during the war including the RAF. This book covers in 44 pages, about 30 photos and 7 colour profiles, the operational usage of the Mitchell by those three squadrons with the usual details on losses. The Gloster Meteor F. For the Meteor, the main issue was to find the right engines and the development of these took more time than initially planned and proved more complicated than originally thought but eventually the first Meteor F.

Is were ready to enter service in the summer Their first action took place soon after in the hunt of the V-1 launched against England. Then the Meteor was deployed on the Continent in its F. This study covers the wartime era and stopps in September This book is illustred with 30 photos 5 in colours and five colour profiles.

It was declined in various marks, and this book is devoted to the intruder version, the B. This is mainly a pictorial study of this mark in over photographs, many in colour, and seven colour profiles. The full RAF register is included and a photo or more of each aircraft is published as far as possible, describing in the same time the evolution of the camouflage and markings. A short chapter on the exports is also included.

This volume contains the biography of 52 pilots: P. Archer UK , H. Armstrong Aus , R. Bannock Can , E. Barwell UK , P. Barwell UK , T. Brannagan Can , J. Cox Aus , J. Cranstone NZ , M. Czernin UK , J. Dolezal Cz , P. Dunn UK , R. Easby UK , Y. Ezanno Fr , D. Fairbanks USA , J. Falkowski Pol , B. Gale Aus , J. Gaynor SA , E. Glaser UK , F. Grant Can , F. Green Can , W. Harper UK , J. Hill UK , J. Holmes UK , A. Houle Can , R. Hudson Aus , B. Ingham UK , J. Kilmartin Ire , R. Lallemant Bel , D. Loftus SA , A.

Malan SA , I. Matthew UK , H. Mayers Aus , G. McGregor Can , A. Miller UK , M. Nash Aus , J. Nelson USA , J. Niven UK , G. Piltinsgrud Nor , W. Retinger Pol , C. Saunders UK , D. Scott NZ , J. Seccombe SA , G. Sharp NZ , G. Stephenson UK , E. Thomas UK , J.

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Thompson UK , A. Trumble UK , R. Turkington UK , L. Westernra NZ , C. A pictorial study of the USN aircraft between and This third volume contains 52 names: H. Allen UK , B. Arct Pol , J. Baldwin UK , R. Balfour NZ , D. Boitel-Gill UK , O. Bull Nor , C. Caldwell Aus , N. Cameron UK , E. Charles Can , H. Clarke SA , R. Coffey USA , M. Cotton Aus , A. Deere NZ , M. Donnet Bel , H. Dundas UK , H. Eeles UK , F. Fajtl Cz , J. Foster UK , H. Gonay Bel , W. Green UK , P. Halahan Ire , H. Hood UK , M. Ingram NZ , C. Jefferies UK , A. Johnstone UK , G. Keefer Can , D.

Kelly UK , J. Lambert Can , P. Lucas UK , K. Macdonald NZ , I. Maskill NZ , O. Massart Fr , D. McCormack Aus , A. McDowell UK , J. More UK , A. Nesbitt Can , P. Olver UK , M. Pattle SA , S. Peacock-Edwards Rho , J. Plagis Gr , T. Pugh UK , C. Robertson Aus , M. Robinson UK , J. Rose UK , P. Townsend UK , T. Trimble Aus , F.

Weber Cz , W. Whitamore UK , L. Wilmot SA , S. Witorzenc Pol , J. Wray UK , H. Zary USA. This first volume contains 52 names: J. Aitken UK , R. R Atcherley UK , J. Bartle Aus , R. Berg Nor , J. Berry UK , K. Birksted Dan , N. Bretz Can , E. Brough NZ , G. Brown UK , A. Conway UK , J. Cunningham UK , J-F.

Demozay Fr , J. Dewar UK , A. Esau Aus , A. Eyre UK , B. Finucane Ire , J. Frost SA , I. Gleed UK , A. Glowacki Pol , E. Gracie UK , C. Green Rho , D. Guillaume Bel , K. Hampshire Aus , L. Hawkins UK , G. Hill Can , J. Human SA , P. Hunter UK , J. Johnson UK , O. Kallio USA , M. Knight NZ , K. Kuhlmann SA , B. Lane UK , G.

Le Mesurier SA , D. Leroy du Vivier Bel , E. Mackie NZ , J. Munro UK , J. Orzechowski Pol , J. Plamondon Can , J. Ratten Aus , B. Russel Can , A. Sager Can , S. Skalski Pol , O. Smik Cz , L. Smith UK , R. Stevens Aus , W. Straight UK , F. Thorsager Nor , A. Umbers NZ , B. Vybiral Cz , G. Warnes UK. Includes over photos and 5 colour profiles. F Squadron Listemann, Phil H. This book describes the war fought by County of Gloucester Squadron.

It comprises pages packed full of information. The book is well illustrated, presenting many interesting photographs as well as 9 splendid high-quality colour side profiles of selected aircraft flown. The appendices make up two-thirds of the book. There is so much information crammed into these pages that perusal soon establishes that this volume is a 'must buy' for any enthusiast or historian interested in the subject. Westland Whirlwind Mk. I Listemann, Phil H. The final page is the Roll of Honour naming the 46 pilots who lost their lives flying the Westland Whirlwind one should recall that only examples entered service.

Squadron Listemann, Phil H. Includes diary of sorties, squadron bases, claim list, aircraft lost, squadron roster and roll of honour. This book covers the wartime history of R. Squadron, in the two theatres in which it operated, the Far East flying Brewster Buffalo fighters and then after reforming in the UK : N.

Europe operating four successive marks of Supermarine Spitfires. Almost sixty pages of appendices present, in the usual fashion, tables and lists showing sorties flown on each aircraft type, first and last missions flown, RAF command structures, individual code letters matched to specific aircraft serial numbers, maps showing bases flown from, in the Far East, the United Kingdom and Europe. Then follows the daily operational diary for the N.

W Europe campaign only as all official records were lost for the earlier Far Eastern campaign , with monthly totals. Tables showing a total of A list of the 7 POWs is also presented. The last forty pages of appendices present the names, careers and in many cases photographs of all the aircrew who flew with the squadron in both theatres of war. As usual with P. This, the eighth booklet of P. It concentrates on the unique deployment of the Defiant as a purely turret-equipped fighter, through initial successes during the Battle of France period, and the later disappointing and costly missions flown during the Battle of Britain.

Subsequent use of the aircraft as a night-fighter, a target-tug or an air-sea-rescue aircraft is not within the scope of this book. The basic airframe of the Defiant was good - but lacking fixed forward-firing armament and when fitted with the turret - it could fulfil neither the expectations of the designers nor those of the RAF when flown under the combat conditions prevailing in the summer and autumn of In the usual 'Allied Wings' style units and their operational histories are described in sequence. Twenty pages cover the ops flown as daylight fighter units by and Squadrons. A further page of text lists the second-line units which flew the Defiant during and is followed by the operational diary listing sortie totals of both Squadrons.

Four pages of colour artwork by Malcolm Laird present three side-profiles and varieties of fuselage roundel. Edges of covers have superficial wear. Edges of pages are lightly browned. Size: 10"" Tall. Previous owner's name in ink. Amelia Earhart: The Mystery Solved. Long, Elgen M. The authors have used long-lost radio messages, and spent 25 years researching her disappearance. This book simultaneously reveals the authors findings, and brings to life the primitive conditions under which earlier aviators flew.

Early Edition. Size: Octavo standard book size. Binding is tight, covers and spine fully intact, but spine is slightly cocked. No foxing in this copy. Dust Jacket worn at edges, small chips and tears. Dust Jacket un-clipped. Edges browned slightly. Inventory No: RB Size: 9"- 10" Tall. This publication describes the history and development of the low-level and high-altitude variants of the Ta , one of the ultimate and finest German fighters of WWII.

It brings to the reader the most up-to-date information and research available, including operational and post-war history, a technical description and camouflage and markings details. A comprehensive set of colour profiles and a photographic section are included. Popeye Lucas. Queenstown Lucas, F. Wellington: A. Reed, Signed by author. This book provides the reader with a wealth of information of RAF aircraft during the Battle of Britian during It covers the development of camouflage schemes, the development of identification markings, paint shades, exceptions to the rules, and materials used.

The book covers fighter, night fighters, bombers, seaplanes and reconnaissance aircraft. This book covers the immediate post war years and details the reasons behind the decisions and timescale to the changeover from the dull wartime camouflage schemes and national markings in to the 'silver' schemes and revised national markings. Book clean and square.

Spine firm, bright gilt title there-on. Boards undamaged. Leaves clean. Illustrated, loose-plastic protected dustjacket near fine. Conceived as a private venture by the Bristol Aeroplane Company in , the Bulldog was one of the best of the silver biplanes to fly with the Royal Air Force. Gives a detailed account of the Bulldog's conception and design, construction, engines and modifications.

Contents include: Prelims. Book weight approx. Geoff Hocking.

Video from the Past [13] - No. 75 Squadron's Defence of Port Moresby

From to 5 June by George Odgers. Excellent history by well known historian. Includes crew list for SC. Very informative account of Australia's first overseas contingent. Chronological order history of a provincial area of NSW. War Memorial". Excellent condition. A coloni- al view of the Boer War. Grade II. Lewis, D. From October , to March With photos of most Officers. HC edition. Many soldiers names are mentioned. Very well illustrated. Transvaal War - A pictorial of those killed from Victoria in the Boer War to The Siege of Ladysmith through Australian eyes.

Boer War history. Footballers who never returned from war by Main and Allen. HC with DJ. Short history of Aussies at war by renowned historian. Emotive look at Australian experience at war. Infantry Battalion" by Ron Blair. Signed by Author. From 6 June to " by George Odgers. Excellent history by well known Historian. Experience of Aust. Troops analyzed with links to Pioneer Aust. Vol X. The Australians at Rabaul by S Mackenzie. One of the Beans series. HC very worn. Grade III. Usable for research. Edited by Richard Pelvin. Large format book with some fantastic shots of Australians and New Zealanders at War.

Real-life adventures of the war brides who came to Australia. The new release follow up to "Gallipoli". A new perspective on Australia's entry and journey through WWI. Roy Whitelaw 1st A. F" by Allan M. By Ron Austin. New and Signed. Packed full of info and photos of how WWI affected Ballarat. Some fading to cover. Describes the memorials and cemeteries for Aust soldiers of WW1. Original reference work Aust. A Photographic history. A collection of evocative photographs and quotations honouring the memory of those who served in the Great War.

HC Grade I. Australians in the Dardanelles Campaign. Excellent informative Slouch Hat publication. A must for the Gallipoli buff. Tony Wright. Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett. Very informative quick reference on the great Australian commander. Underlying truth to identify the link between the Aussie digger. One mans pilgerimage to Aust battlefields of WW1. From the diary of a WW1 Digger. By: Yves Fohlen. Edited by Gloria Auchterlonie. Many photographs. Informative text, well researched. Compliation of various military historians articles. Full history of Australia's War Memorial in Canberra.

Very nice used copy of this very hard to find memorial handbook. Short AIF history and photo's complete this wonderful book. Captives and Comrades. Talking history with Bill Bunbury. An illustrated history by R Pelvin. Neil McDonald. David Day. Debate text about the Political Sphere during WW2. A good resource book for home or libary, well illustrated. Official history of Aust in WW2. Volume 1 of 4 Series 5.

Exploring Australian involvement in WW2. New Condition. An informative look at industry and the way it helped Australia through WW2. Grade I-. By Education Department Victoria. A record of 4 years of campaigning. Well illustrated. The history about one of Australias most famous battles. Compelling postwar experiences of Australian ex-Service- women Griffith Spragg.

Infantry Battalian. Tony Sweeney. Lionel Veale. Lionel Veale's account of a Mission as a Coastwatcher. A look at Japan and if she will accept peace. First ed. Pictures, cartoons, text, paintings War Artists etc. One of a series. Very well researched insight into suicide warriors in WW2. A story of love, loss and discovery in Rabaul during World War 2.

A look into Wartime events by a daughter to find out what happened to her father in WW2. Australias WW2 remembered by the men and women who lived it. The first hand accounts of more than 75 ordinary Australians. New book. Memoirs of Veteran, Doctor and Researcher into military health problems. AWM Publication. Official look at Australian service in Korea. Roger Cross and Avon Hudson. HC Used. Grade II- A most unusual original Index book. Political dissection of Australia's role in the Vietnam War. By Richard Pelvin. New, great pictorial history of the Australian involvement in South Vietnam.

Very interesting perspective of life "in country" and "at play". Well known Vietnam War Author. Unit history with nominal roll. Memoirs of a Vietnam Veteran. The effects of the War on the author and his mates, during and Post Vietnam. Peter Londey. Bob Breen. Australians at War series pgs A Time Life history book. Usual foxing to pages, some discolouration to outer spine. Becoming scarce. South Australian Military Forces. Nominal Roll and biographical details of each member. By W Fahey. Great nostalgic look at the lighter side of war. A conglomerate of Biographies of prominent Aust.

Servicemen during World War One. Patrick Lindsay. Exploring the Anzac Spirit. Great story as seen through the eyes of 3 brothers in WWI. New Release. Memoirs of a 45th Btn Digger. Very informative. An evocative collection of stories, true accounts and poems about the Gallipoli campaign - many never published before.

By Keith R. From WW1 to the modern warfare systems. History of 4th A. H Field Ambulance Semi- Biographical. New Release! Big seller back in reviewed for Today's readers. Very interesting. First N. W attempt to raise funds to benifit returned service personnel. Very informative publication. Memorial Register 26, Villers-bretonneux memorial France. Part II C-F. Names of Australian war dead commemorated on the villers-bretonneux memorial. Vary scarce. Robert A. Many photos and informative text.

Divisional history WW2 Australia. Isa to Darwin. Northern Territory Wartime Experiences. Personal account of war in PNG Kokoda and afterwards. Pocket Edition. Personal account of Australia's war in the Pacific. Comprehensive history of Military Artillery Defence. Well researched and well illustrated. Second Volume of the unofficial history of the Army Maritime Units. Large format New look at the Kokoda Campaign. New release. Great history.

Hardship, endurance, mateship. Informative text. Account of a young infantryman's experience. Forerunners of the Commandos. Signed by author. New Release Book. One man's war at El Alamein. Very interesting read. By Ivan Blazely. Informative text from Mid East to Pacific Theatres. A complete collection of Newsletters distributed by the battalion Ex-library book. By David Selby. Personal account of defence Op.

History of Australias Commandoes. By P Collins. Australian Servicemen at Sandakan, Borneo By William E. Booklet in memory of members of the Sandakan Death March. New release special forces missions. A personal account of Korean War Experience. Butler, A. Argent and J. Leaders of Australian Troops in Korea. With Honour Roll. Worth a look at. Official History of Aust. Ops in Vietnam '' One man's look at his service in Vietnam. History of one of Australia's most significant actions in the Vietnam War.

Vietnam Memories. Memoirs of a very experienced infantry officer. Short unit history of involvement in Vietnam War. Full of new Info. The Australians in Vietnam. Edited by John J. Various first hand experiences of Diggers in Vietnam. By Bob Breen. Gripping account of the first Australian combat troops into the war zone of Vietnam.

HC DJ. By Jean Debelle Lamensdorf. A detailed account of Australia's major Vietnam battle by one of the participants Illustrated. From the beginning to set up a sea base to As new. Used book. Damage to spine. Very informative, well illustrated. Great source of information. Direct to the point. Naval aspects of the Anzac Campaign by T Frame.

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The part played by the RAN. Australias daring raid on the Dardanelles on the day of the Gallipoli landing. The story of the AE2 Aust Submarine. Well researched book with many photos, maps etc. In depth story of Commando Ops in late WW2. Second Volume. Paperback well used controversial subject. Great book about the little known other raids on Australian soil. Spanning a 43 year career, this book is his story.

Edited by David Stevens. History with illustrations. Aged and well used. Official history of the R. Tom Lewis. Wrecks since Bill Loane. SC book. Confrontation with Indonesia by John Foster. Interesting insight into voyager tragedy. Tom Frame. John Jeremy. Nice full colour photos. New title based on the RAAF. Official history of Australia's Air War.

Small card cover book. Stories of 4 Australians operating over Europe. War Dept. Michael V. By Kristen Alexander. The epic outback search for the crew of Little Eva by B Ralph. In a downed B crew bailed out and survived the Australian Outback. This is their story and that of the men and Black Trackers sent out to find them. Well presented Unit history. Robert S. By G W Raebel. Good source of info and photos relating to air war in Northern Australia. SC NEW. Modern reprint of long out of print unit history. Water damage to cover and bottom corner discolouration of pages.

Information history of Veterinary Corps. Vann, OAM. Beautifully bound and embossed book. Very well illustrated and text. All you need to know up until Area unit history artillery. With many Nominal Rolls. Various Authors. A concise History of Artillery in South Australia. Extremely informative text and appendices. History and nominal roll with some biographical details and WW1 service. The history of the 6th Battalion, the Royal Melbourne Regiment Bloke" by Frank Grose.

Slight damage. Citizen Soldiers in the Service of Australia By: Albert Palazzo. Citizen Soldiers in the Service of Australia, By Cameron Simpson. Robert Kearney. Unit History. In rear of the book there is damage to top right corner of photographs and to back cover pgs.

Vol III. Active Service issue. Original Unit history. Camp Life in England. Unit history with Honours and Nominal Rolls. Unit History with Nominal Roll. Most of the history about WW2. Honour roll for WW2. Desktop publication, Coil bound. Quick research book for second battle of Krithia. Australian Commandos in China. Original history.

By Arthur Lelean. The Band of 1st Aust. With foreward by Sir Charles Court, A. Unit history, with nominal roll and photos. WW2 Unit history with Nominal Rolls. Mark Johnston. Vol 1. Oct - Mar With Casualty and Nominal Rolls. Unit history WW2. With list of members. The nominal, award and casualty rols. A history of the 22nd Battalion AIF. Including Nominal Rolls. Signed by the author. What we have we hold. HC NEW. Some signatures on end page.

A Slouch Hat Publication. Vol 2. Well illustrated WW2 history 30th BN. With Nominal Rolls, showing awards and casualties etc. Carl Johnson.

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Signed by the Author. James Watt. Includes nominal roll from July, Hard cover. History of unsung heroes of Vietnam War. Great story about our little known involvement in Malaysia. History of 8RAR in Vietnam. Corps history. Covers recent exploits of the SAS. An Australian Soldier's Story. Soft cover. The Strength and Courage shown by Australians taken prisoner of war. Original account of a Sandakan Death March.

Reprint of Australian War Classic P. Gripping story of Prisoners of War in WW2. Amazing story of Japanese Escape attempt in WW2. By F W G Power. A very detailed history. By Courtney T. Great research insight into treatments of P. W's in pacific. Betty Jeffrey. Jessie Elizabeth Simons. Story of Australian Nurses who were P.

The loss of Eagle with its 16 aircraft and the damage to Indomitable which kept its 47 more aircraft out of action, reduced the number of operational fighters to eight Sea Hurricanes, three Martlets and ten Fulmars, as Force Z was due to leave the convoy, to remain outside the range of Axis aircraft based in Sardinia. Syfret had intended Force Z to turn west upon reaching the Skerki Bank at but ordered the turn at , quickly to get Indomitable out of danger. At about , the convoy manoeuvred from four to two columns to pass through the Skerki Channel, the starboard column with Kenya in the lead and Manchester sixth back, the port column with Nigeria leading and Carlisle in the centre, ten destroyers sailing outside the columns.

Kenya turned sharply and avoided three of the torpedoes but the fourth hit aft on the starboard side; Kenya was able to keep up but this left Force X with Manchester as the only undamaged cruiser. Bronzo reported that it had sunk Deucalion and the captain of Kenya described the state of the convoy as "chaotic". A burning ship blows up.

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At , the convoy passed south of Zembra Island towards Kelibia on Cap Bon, to avoid the minefields between Africa and Sicily , still out of formation. Three minesweeping destroyers sailed ahead, followed by the cruisers Kenya , Manchester and two freighters. Charybdis and the destroyers Eskimo and Somali from Force Z were still some hours behind and Ashanti was steaming fast to overhaul the main body.

Three destroyers remained with nine of the merchantmen and Bramham was en route after Deucalion had been sunk. The Italian boats then attacked the merchant ships. S 58 and S 59 sighted the first ships at , attacked and S 58 was damaged, turning away for Port Empedocle. Glenorchy mistakenly claimed the destruction of a torpedo boat and the two MAS boats ran aground in Tunisia.

Power was restored on Manchester and men were taken on board Pathfinder but at , the captain ordered the ship be scuttled and the remaining crew to make for the Tunisian coast. Ohio and its destroyer were slowly closing the distance and further back were Port Chalmers and two destroyers. Dorset was sailing independently and Brisbane Star lurked near the Tunisian coast, ready to make a run for Malta after dark. Dawn brought an end to the torpedo boat attacks and at , Burrough sent Eskimo and Somali back to help Manchester but they arrived too late, took on survivors who had not reached the shore and made for Gibraltar.

At the cruisers had turned east and run along the north coast of Sicily; British aircraft from Malta had conducted a ruse to decoy the cruisers but the main attacking force on Malta was held back, in case the Italian battleships sailed from Taranto. Some of the Italian cruisers were ordered to return to port and the rest were sent through the Straits of Messina to join the 8th Cruiser Division against the MG 3 decoy convoy in the eastern Mediterranean.

The Italian cruisers were heard first by hydrophone and then seen through the periscope at , heading north between the islands of Filicudi and Panarea. Mars raised the periscope for only short periods, to avoid being seen by the destroyers and the Cants, while manoeuvring into an attack position.

Observers on Gorizia and Bolzano had seen torpedo tracks and Gorizia was turned sharply but Bolzano was hit while beginning its turn. The deck crew of Muzio Attendolo had not seen the torpedo tracks or received the alert from Fuciliere and the ship took evasive action only after Bolzano was hit, which was too late. The destroyers detected Unbroken at and accurately dropped depth charges in the next 45 minutes but at too shallow a depth. Two destroyers escorted Gorizia and Trieste to Messina and five remained with Bolzano and Muzio Attendolo , periodically dropping depth charges as a deterrent.

Bolzano was struck amidships, six engine rooms and a magazine flooded and a fire started, the commander of the 11th Destroyer Flotilla being ordered to tow the ship and run it aground on Panarea. Bolzano burned until the next day, watched over by Italian fighters and after a month of repairs, was towed to Naples. Supermarina had re-routed the cruiser force after a submarine Unbroken had been detected, which had been predicted by Mars, enabling him to forestall the Italians, who broke orders by not zigzagging and by slowing.

After the incident, Supermarina assumed that the submarine had escaped because Italian depth charges were not powerful enough, rather than the Asdic-equipped ships had been hampered by the turbulence of destroyer wakes and depth charge explosions. Trailing behind were Dorset and Port Chalmers with two destroyers and two more off to the west. Fliegerkorps II sent 26 Ju 88s in several waves and at , 16 Ju 87s escorted by eight Bf s and eight Bf s attacked.

The wreckage of Waimarama showered flaming debris on Melbourne Star and several of her crew abandoned ship prematurely, some of whom were later rescued by Ledbury. The attackers lost two Ju 87s and a Bf and a Beaufighter was shot down. Port Chalmers was hit and at , five SM. An SM. The remnants of the convoy steamed on to meet the four minesweepers and seven motor minesweepers of the 17th Minesweeper Flotilla of the Malta Escort Force at The last ship to arrive, Brisbane Star evaded a U-boat and managed to steam at 5—9 nautical miles 9. The ship evaded Italian MAS boats; it was then boarded by the Sousse harbour master, who tried to impound the vessel until persuaded to relent and let the ship sail on after dark.

Ledbury was attacked by two SM. Force X was attacked by 35 Ju 88s and 13 Ju 87s, achieving only a near-miss on Kenya for a loss of one Ju 88 and one Stuka. The Regia Aeronautica attacked with 15 bombers and 20 torpedo-bombers for no loss and during the afternoon, Force X met Force Z , the ships being attacked by aircraft, submarines and light craft and Foresight was scuttled by Tartar when it could no longer sail. Eskimo and Somali , carrying survivors from Manchester were the last to reach Gibraltar at on 15 August. In the eastern Mediterranean, the decoy operation MG 3 had begun when convoy MW12 with three freighters had sailed from Port Said after dusk on 10 August.

The merchant ships were escorted by two cruisers, ten destroyers and two smaller escorts and another merchant ship escorted by two cruisers and three destroyers left Haifa at the next day. The two forces rendezvoused early on 11 August and sailed west to the longitude of Alexandria, then turned back. U had reported that four cruisers and ten destroyers were close to Crete and a message from a Sunderland was intercepted. Reconnaissance reports from Malta noted a smokescreen over Valletta, apparently to conceal two cruisers but this was later taken to mean that the British were hiding the departure of ships heading west towards the convoy.

The large size of the convoy was interpreted by Supermarina to imply an operation in the eastern Mediterranean and prepared to reinforce the 8th Cruiser Division at Navarino. Kesselring thought that the convoy was a British wireless-telegraphy spoof but might also be a supply convoy for Malta and Fliegerkorps X was ordered to reconnoitre all of the eastern Mediterranean on the morning of 12 August but no aircraft were available to cover the Italian cruisers, operations against the convoy taking priority.

Ohio settled on the bottom just as the last of the fuel was emptied. German reports on 17 August claimed that all the tankers in the recent Mediterranean convoy had been sunk and none of the transports had reached their destination assumed to be Egypt. The Allies had lost thirteen vessels, including nine merchantmen, one aircraft carrier Eagle , two cruisers Manchester and Cairo and a destroyer Foresight but the Royal Navy and the Merchant Navy had saved Malta. Axis propaganda broadcasts made extravagant claims but a Kriegsmarine report noted the incomplete and contradictory evidence, allowing only a provisional conclusion.

The arrival of four merchant ships and a tanker was unsatisfactory , because the revival of Malta as an offensive base would affect Axis supply routes in what might be the "decisive phase of the struggle for North Africa". Supermarina reached the same conclusion and Generale Giuseppe Santoro it deputy chief of staff of the Regia Aeronautica , wrote that the British had achieved a strategic success by bringing Malta back into action "in the final phase of the struggle in Egypt".

Later that year, Eberhard Weichold summed up the Kriegsmarine view,. To the continental observer, the British losses seemed to represent a big victory for the Axis, but in reality the facts were quite different, since it had not been possible to prevent a British force, among which were five merchant vessels, from reaching Valetta Thanks to these new supplies Malta was now capable of fighting for several weeks, or, at a pinch, for several months.

The main issue, the danger of air attack on the supply route to North Africa, remained. To achieve this objective no price was too high, and from this point of view the British operation, in spite of all the losses, was not a defeat, but a strategical failure of the first order by the Axis, the repercussions of which will one day be felt The arrival of Ohio justified the convoy despite the loss of nine of the merchant ships one in Valletta harbour.

On 15 August, Lerici was also sunk by Porpoise and on 17 August, Pilo was sunk by aircraft and the tanker Pozarica was sunk on 21 August. One carrier Indomitable , two cruisers Nigeria and Kenya and three destroyers were damaged and under repair for some time. Fliegerkorps II sent sorties against Pedestal from 11 to 14 August and claimed 12 aircraft shot down for 18 losses.

Total Axis losses were 62 aircraft, 42 Italian and 19 German, including losses on the ground and those shot down by their own side. Royal Navy gunners and Fleet Air Arm fighters claimed 74 aircraft shot down but destroyed 42 Axis aircraft, 26 from the Regia Aeronautica and 16 Luftwaffe aircraft. The Allies could not risk such losses again and another large convoy to Malta was not attempted until November , when the re-capture of airfields in Egypt and Libya after the Second Battle of El Alamein made it much easier to provide land-based air cover.

Submarines and Bristol Beaufort torpedo-bombers, escorted by Bristol Beaufighters , regularly attacked Axis supply ships, concentrating on tankers, known to the Allies through Ultra intercepts from Bletchley Park. An attempt to run a disguised merchant ship to Malta early in November failed and then Operation Stoneage 17—21 November , a convoy of four merchant ships from Alexandria, arrived undamaged the light cruiser Arethusa was torpedoed with men killed and had to be towed back to port.

Force K was re-established at Malta and in Operation Portcullis 1—5 December , five ships were dispatched and arrived safely. In recognition of their fortitude during the siege and air attacks during all of the Mediterranean campaign, Malta was awarded the George Cross in the months immediately preceding this operation.

Vice-Admiral Syfret was appointed as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath for his "bravery and dauntless resolution in fighting an important convoy through to Malta in the face of relentless attacks by day and night from enemy submarines, aircraft, and surface forces. Dales for "Heroism beyond the call of duty". Force F [] [m]. Naval forces []. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Date 3—15 August Location Mediterranean Sea. Battle of the Mediterranean. Eagle was lost during the operation. Map of the Strait of Sicily. Map showing the Aegadian Islands, west of Sicily.

Photograph of a Sea Hurricane Savoia-Marchetti SM. Aeolian Islands, off the north coast of Sicily. The aerial torpedo caught in Port Chalmers ' s paravane. Rhodes in the Dodecanese Islands. Score-board for HMS Indomitable ' s air group painted on the island, 38 Axis aircraft claimed destroyed or damaged. The pre-war intake for Maltese civilians not performing manual labour was about 2, calories and workers ate considerably more; the calorie intake in Britain never fell below 2, during the war.

When he asked what was in them, he was told that there were no medicines left, only water with a choice of coloured bottle. About Luftwaffe bombers and torpedo bombers Ju 88 , Ju 87 and He attacked the convoy and lost 14 aircraft but the records did not contain the number of reconnaissance aircraft involved. Supermarina had actually cancelled the operation before the British signals were received, because of a lack of air cover. Nine Ju 88, two SM. The crew who landed in Vichy -controlled Tunisia were interned until after Operation Torch, after which a Court Martial ruled that the scuttling had been premature.

The London Gazette Supplement. Books Blair, Clay Random House. Giorgerini, Giorgio Milano: Mondadori.