Axis Mundi: ou la légende dun antihéros des temps postmodernes  (MON PETIT EDITE) (French Edition)

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Fourth, the rise in prima cotton price a genetically modified version which is imported from the USA is a critical input for producing higher quality bed wear and fabrics, has made these items less competitive in the international market. Trade and Payments. Pay and display and PayByPhone - Where A vehicle parked in a suspended bay is likely to receive a parking ticket and could be removed, even if you have paid to park. Conditions of use. You must purchase and then clearly display, a payment ticket or pay using your mobile phone, when you first park.

You must park your vehicle fully within a single bay. August 24, Government official time is paid for by the public and it should be devoted only to the provision of continuous and quality public service. Amendment of The NIDThe information or data upon which a National Identity Card is issued to any citizen: a May, if necessary, be amended by the Commission in the prescribed manner upon an application made by any citizen subject to payment of prescribed fees; or.

Relational Procurement Options - Alliance andBy comparison, a construction contract with high geotechnical risks or a developmental project with software intensive elements may benefit from a schedule of rates payment option. There are two methods by which alliance tenderers are selected. A winning bidder can see all of their auctions in the My Summary tab. Online payment will be available for 5 days for each auction listing. Once the bidder receives a winning bid email, he or she can view the payment status for the auction by going to the My Summary tab and selecting the Trades link.

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Balance of payments28The FOB basis ensures the single basis for assessment of goods value and makes it possible to obtain indices for national accounts and balance of payments compilation, to carry out investigations on data adjustment, and to analyze bilateral trade, etc. Other investment is a resid-ual category that includes positions and transactions. Balance of Payments and External Debt of Ukraine in Today, the number of second- and third-line Hungarian equipment manufacturers who meet stringent quality standards is continually on the rise.

There are currently local suppliers in this industry. Electronics The electronics industry provides one of the best options for foreign businesses looking for investment opportunities in TicketflapOver the past three years, Ticketflap has provided ticketing services for more than events in Hong Kong. Some 45, people attended the last Clockenflap festival in November, during which Ticketflap processed a single-day record of 23, transactions. Trading bank. Credit union. Name of account holder. Local Rural Development RD offices can provide information on single family housing programs for rural residents.

To learn about the options available to you, contact your Sample questions of licensing examinations of3 Which of the following explanations is not correct regarding the forward, futures and options contracts? No percentages or fractions. Fee Payments Option? Payment options? Taxpayers will be given an automatic single six-month extension to file. Form BPT-V must accompany all business privilege tax payments, unless payments are made electronically. NOTE: No paper or electronic extension form is needed to be filed to obtain the automatic extension.

Impact Assessment IA Non-tradedThe costs and benefits of each option are compared to the do nothing option. Impact Assessments place a strong emphasis on valuing the costs and benefits in monetary terms including estimating the value of goods and services that are not traded. Dept of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Turkmenistan: golden agePresently, Turkmenistan rapidly integrates in world economy. As a result of this, there is a necessity of expansion of use of plastic cards by creation of single card system, increase of types of operations, opening of electronic systems of calculations in trade centers.

Publically traded on TSX. Proven financial performer. Financing options - summary. Short term manufacturer 1 year or less. PPTX to establish for participants of the exchange trade forward, futures contracts and options kinds, the sizes Single visitors of the exchange auctions have the right to carry out transactions only on Electronic Filing and Payment Options For tax years beginning on or after January 1, , publicly traded partnerships with Montana source income can be exempt from the requirement to include owners in a composite income tax return or pay tax on their behalf. To qualify, a partnership has to be defined as a publicly traded partnership under section b of the Internal Revenue Code and comply with the following requirements.

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Yes, unless terms of the agreement provide otherwise. Payment Systems VisionMuch of domestic economic activity is in the form of person-to-person P2P trade and is exclusively cash settlement. The CBN will accept solutions where core infrastructure the scheme is run by a single commercial organisation if the business case is compelling, but the preference is for a multi-scheme provider solution working to agreed inter-operability standards. July P2P Payment - Request for Information.

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Not all banks are CTX capable. If Option A is your preferred option, discuss with your bank about its capability of delivering remittance information to you. Payment Options Page 3 of 4. Companies and securities51 For instance, there are several broad categories of options over equity derivatives:. A board of trade must be designated as a "contract market" for each type of futures contract which it proposes to trade: Commodity Exchange Act s 4 a. A single board of trade or exchange may therefore be a number of contract markets equal to the number of types of futures contracts for which the CFTC Connecticut Municipal Employees Retirement System The survivor option dictates what benefits, if any, are payable after your death.

When you retire you must select one of 4 different income payment options Survivor Options. Single members must execute this form attesting to the fact that they are not married or subject to a spouse's consent. If you have been married less than one year twelve months as of the date of retirement you are not required to provide a lifetime benefit Option A or B to your spouse. Your Social Security benefits will be based on all of the Social Security credits you've earned in your lifetime. If you elect a single payment or certain monthly payments, you may have TSP transfer all or any portion of the payment s to an Individual Retirement Arrangement IRA or other eligible retirement plan.

Spreading - futures or options trading strategies intended to take advantage of, and profit from, a This error has occured for one of the following reasons : 1. Invalid Parameters. Can International payments be processed? FAQs Aggregator is the Payment Aggregator service which provides multiple payment options on a single payment page for the convenience of depositors of Bharat Kosh.

This service will be launched later. The first step in the process of issuing a license is determining the activity type which identifies legal form options and parties associated with that activity. There are more than 2, business activities available in Dubai, which fall into different classes and groups: industrial, commercial, professional and tourism activities. You have to pay trade name reservation fees within 72 hours of receiving the payment voucher. A trade name certificate is valid for 6 months.

The Information Society represents a phenomenal challenge and opportunity for Ireland. We are at the early stages of a new industrial revolution - one which will have more dramatic implications than any other single industrial development in the history of the State. They will also investigate the scope for introducing new electronic payment options, and will bring forward at least one pilot project in this area.

The Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment CRO will continue to develop a pilot project for electronic delivery of annual company returns. FRCC has moved to a single payment deadline to allow students more time to pay tuition, set-up a payment plan, apply and authorize COF, and to complete the financial aid process.

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January 31 is also the deadline to add or drop week courses. Application Requirements. Single-Choice Early Action. Student Budget. Tuition can be paid directly from a personal checking account drawn on a US bank. Tuition can be paid online by credit card. We cannot accept credit cards via mail, phone, or in person. There is a 1. Check, Cash, Money Order. Tuition can be paid by mail or in person at any Penn State location. Many diverse markets may form as exchanges and brokerages compete to attract traders. Arbitrageurs ensure that prices do not vary much across markets.

Clever traders can extract the value of these options. Pay attention to when traders create trading options and to how they prevent other traders from extracting their values. Our staff at Student Accounting Services are available to answer any questions you might have regarding payment options, and we will do our very best to ensure that your payment process is smooth and convenient.

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If a student is assigned a single bedroom the fee for this added option will be billed after move-in. At-Home Professions' career training is flexible We are committed to providing you with a high-quality education at an affordable price. Invest in your future today! Low Monthly Payments. At-Home Professions makes paying for your education easy. Lecture 1: The Options Market and Options TradingBefore you trade options, it is essential that you have a good working knowledge of how to evaluate stocks and the underlying factors that influence share prices. Stock options convey the right to either acquire or sell stock over a particular period of time for a specific price and so, you need to really know a lot about the stock you are interested in buying or selling an option in to be successful.

Options one and two make it possible for you to graduate without debt. Option three is designed for the learner who is looking for a low monthly payment and minimal up-front cost. Learners who choose this option will typically have a tuition balance upon completion of the degree program, which can be paid in full or via interest-free monthly payments. Payment systems inIt uses a Y-shaped topology in which all participating banks have direct access to the system under a single-tier structure.

Optionsll Price quoted is for a single share. Trading Options. Clearing and settlement annotated bibliographyPay your tuition and fees - Greenville Technical CollegeSingle Farm Payment in the European Union and itsIn the sugar sector, a reform was adopted in February and compensatory aids for sugar beet growers will be integrated in the SFP. Currently, the reform of the common market organisation in wine and fruit and vegetables is under discussion.

Several reform options are assessed until end of , but they will be in line with the principles of the CAP reform. This means that even the new single farm payment scheme might contribute to distort production in the EU and its international trade. Working Appropriate Uses of the Payment VoucherYou have the option to electronically attach the Travel Workbook to the payment voucher using the attachment paperclip icon. If you are printing a single Payment Voucher No surcharge fee will be applied to payments made by Cards.

The insurance is offered either on a single-buyer or portfolio multi-buyer basis for short-term up to one year and medium-term one to five years repayment periods. Single-name options Electronic trading in 6 exchanges Equity Options Markets. Traded on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. Dividend Yield from Yahoo. Students: charge to student account. DOCChapter 7 futures and options on foreign exchange Payment Options Benedictine Chicago Catholic Payments made by personal check, business check or online by ACH will be subject to a 14 day hold to allow for clearance of funds.

This hold will not be lifted until 14 days have passed, regardless of your scheduled registration date. We note that the payments may not be channelled to retail traders exclusively, especially given the current brokerage fee structure. This is because most options brokers charge a single fixed price commission to all of their customers. Instead, the order flow inducements may be distributed among a wider set of brokerage clients. Options on Dividend Paying StocksWe have seen how to price European style options on non-dividend paying stocks.

In the following para-graphs we discuss how to place a value on an option for a dividend paying stock. Two cases are considered. The rst assumes that dividends are paid at a constant rate continuously, while the second assumes that there is a single dividend payment during the remaining life of the option. However, while that is unreasonable for a single stock, it is not unreasonable for options on indexed funds. Hull Strategies to be Considered. S Definitions: Campbell R. Harvey's Hypertextual Finance A single put option or call option, as opposed to a spread or straddle, which involves multiple puts and calls.

Single-payment bond. Often used in negotiations to compromise an eighth difference, and in options trading. Futures and optionsA Commodity Futures Trading Commission CFTC regulation allows one floor broker to engage in a cross-trade, that is, to represent both sides of a futures or options trade on behalf of different customers at the market price under certain specified conditions. A fiduciary such as perhaps an FCM may not cause the plan to pay an additional fee to itself or its affiliates; and a fiduciary may not be paid for rendering more than one service to the plan unless such payment is exempt.

Engineering EconomicsA single payment at some time in the future. A uniform annual payment over several years. For example, consider a lottery that is held in a fictional state Rustiana. In this particular lottery, the winner is given three different payment options. How does the winner choose which option to take? Settlement Date -- The date on which payment is made to settle a trade.

If multiple buy-in events are recorded on a single day, the buy-in price used in Option Pricing 4. Riskless Trading StrategiesOptions have been traded for centuries, but they remained relatively obscure financial instruments until the introduction of a listed options exchange in Since then, options trading has enjoyed an expansion unprecedented in American securities markets. Option pricing theory has a long and illustrious history, but it also underwent a revolutionary change in Trading Networks with Price-Setting AgentsThe price at which the asset trades may differ across these trading venues.

Option Payoffs Use the single-period binomial option pricing model to answer the following questions. Information-Based Trading in the Junk Bond MarketIn addition, these investors in syndicated loans are often also traders, who trade bank loans next to high-yield bonds. In fact, it is quite often that a single trader at a hedge fund deals in all of a company's debt instruments.

As several firms have multiple bonds included in TRACE 50 list during certain periods of time, only the most active bond with the highest priority in payments is kept for inter-market analysis As a result, a panel of daily stock, bond and options data for 77 firms is employed for this study. Realizing the benefits of the Internet as a platform for international trade will require an international pay-ment system that allows customers to purchase goods and services online.

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As discussed, the ability to obtain information on-line about third country markets reduces the costs and complexities of market research for SMEs. Governments can assist the information gathering exercise by using a single website to publish all laws, regulations, and guidelines applicable for online interFinancial Aid Options - Culinary Institute LeN? Also known as the standard repayment plan, this option is the choice of most federal education Consolidation permits you to bundle all of your federal education loans into a convenient single monthly payment at a fixed interest rate.

Trade Promotions ManagementTypically payment options include:? Gelco Draft Manufacturers have sought to simplify trade promotions by:? Reducing the number of options? Standardizing promotion Account Specific Promotion: Promotions that are developed for and offered to a single Pay your fees - FeesMonash has achieved an enviable national and international reputation for research and teaching excellence in a short 50 years. The criteria have been explicitly or implicitly used to justify various payment systems and are subject to debate.

No single criterion is proposed as most important; the aim of the chapter is to inform discussions concerning the choice of one or more of the options. Futures and OptionsPart II deals with options trading. We show how options markets work in general and demonstrate how dairy farmers might use options to protect pricing objectives. Two appendices provide additional hedging examples and illustrate some advanced price risk management strategies. A cash or spot market provides for immediate delivery of and payment for the commodity traded. The purpose is to fulfill the immediate needs of buyers and sellers.

There are informal and formal cash markets. ACC Apartments? Housing Options. Where Can I Live? Payment Info. The four ACC Apartment Communities, privately operated by American Campus Communities, are located on the east side of campus and offer housing to single undergraduates and graduate students. Options allow you to participate in price movements with-out committing the large amount of funds needed to buy stock outright.

All premium and settlement payments are made to and paid by OCC. Whether you are a conservative or growth-oriented investor, or even a short-term, aggressive trader, your broker can help you select an appropriate options strategy. Lecture 8. Naturally, the option should be exercised if and only if the payment is positive.

Put and Call OptionsIf you buy a call option, you have entered into a contract with some other trader who wrote that call option. That may be a small trader just like you. So long as you have permission from your brokerage to trade options, you can write them sometimes with substantial restrictions just as easily as buy them. This is a day limit order at 2. Follow this and additional works at: http The Chicago Board Options Exchange. While trading in options was becoming a RobustAnalogously to how Latane-Rendleman [23] take as given the market price of a single option and invert the Black-Scholes equation to infer a constant volatility, we take as given the market prices of all options at a given expiry and invert a Hull-White-type relationship to infer the entire risk-neutral distribution of the random realized volatility.

According to some estimates [1], the daily trading volume in equity index variance swaps reached. On an annual basis, this corresponds to payments of more than USD 1 billion, per percentage point of volatility. Enterprises may find that there are many advantages in choosing to conduct all or part of their internal operations in the single currency before PHASE C.

In particular, enterprises with large treasury operations may prefer to conduct these activities in the ECU rather than to continue using several national denominations. An early changeover may also prove convenient for companies engaged in cross-border trade and with affiliates or subsidiaries in participating countries. It could, for example, facilitate invoicing, transfer payments and currency manag Non-Retirement Accounts. Most customers receive only a single customer reporting statement from Fidelity and do not InvestmentAlthough pass-through securities often guarantee payment of interest and principal, they do not guarantee the rate of return.

Intestors can be hurt in years when interest rates drop significantly. This is because homeowners usually have an option to prepay, or pay ahead of schedule, the remaining principal The seat entitles the firm to place one of its brokers on the floor of the exchange where he or she can execute trades. The exchange member charges investors for executing trades on their behalf. NYSE is by far the largest single exchange. Does Net Buying Pressure Affect the Shape Put option deltaSimulated delta-neutral option-writing trading strategies generate abnormal returns that match the deviations of the IVFs above realized historical return volatilities.

An alternative approach would be to estimate some arbitrarily specified function for implied volatility; however, it is difficult to find a single structural form that is f lexible enough to handle the cross-sectional differences in the shape of the IVFs for index and stock options as well as the variation in the IVFs through time. Until a change in the law late last year, U. Institutions may now trade single-stock futures starting in August, and retail customers may in December. For comparison purposes the program can also graph the range of potential prices that sellers buyers of commodities would receive pay if a they chose to hedge cash positions with futures or b simply traded in cash market without hedging.

The red line represents the returns to the combined options positions. Risk Payment Method Money Order Thus, assuming a unique maximum exists, the payment option l will be adopted if the Buydown: A single payment by a project contractor to reflect future cash flow losses from anticipated Discussions of! European options can be exercised only at the end of their lives, which is at its maturity or the expiration date of the option, i.

K , 0 ] Put option: Max [ K! S , 0 ], where K is the strike price and S is the spot price of the. A large number of exchange-traded stock options, such as those issued for companies like. Apple and Wal-Mart, are American-style options Risk assessments are trade-offs between If you wish to pay in full instead of creating a monthly payment plan, there is no additional fee charged.

Chapter 6The decision to exercise involves a trade-o between dividend income and interest income. To illustrate this more precisely, consider a stock that pays a single dividend prior to expiration. Immediate exercise of a put on a dividend paying stock is not optimal if the size of the dividend exceeds the interest income on the strike from the current date to the ex-dividend date. Proof: Recall that in the absence of dividend payments, early exercise of a put may be optimal because interest income can be earned on the proceeds obtained as soon as the option is exercised.

Sherlock Trader: Takeover Sleuth. Game Theoretic Approach for Option Pricing. We discuss credit volatility supply and demand in the single name and credit index markets. We study the interplay of volatility and correlation and effective tranche hedging. We conclude with the examination of spread dispersion effects in several hedging methods and a discussion of the non-uniqueness of tranche deltas.

One Chicago area bank had to interrupt electronic Medicare payments to some Executive stock option exercises and insider information. Journal of Business, 74 4 , Eurob A Eurobond is 1. Even though the amounts and timing of the cash flows may differ, the appropriate interest rate makes them equal.

A system may base trade execution on different secondary priorities than those present in the primary market. When they do not nd internal matches, ECNs offer subscribers several options. PPT2Payment Plans University Accounts ReceivableThis calculator is designed to assist students with options for paying tuition and fees due that include a timeline of dates outlining how Payment Plan Fees can be avoided, and when Payment Plan Fees will be assessed. It is recommended that students follow a Payment Plan option to keep on track. One and You're Done. One single payment, fast and easy!

Pay in full by Feb. And asset priceAt each interval, there is a probability g that a single trader potentially wants to trade depending on the costs of trading and 1 - g that no trader has a reason to entertain trading in which case no-trade is observed. Diamond and R. Verrecchia, Price adjustmen to private mformatlon. Our predictions about the effect of reduced short-sale costs on the bid-ask spread are ambiguous. In addition, the main proxy we consider for reduced costs is the introduction of option trading, where option trades are the low cost way of shorting. Payment Options Bursar's OfficeThe following payment options are available for all student fee bills.

Please Note: If you have a payment that has been posted to your fee bill and there are future charges listed on your account, the payment will be applied towards those charges. Electronic Payment Options Barrier options single and double Get an Estimate of My College Costs. Does the College Offer a Payment Plan? Single Stop.

Student Academic Computer Center. Student Success Initiatives. Culinary Arts. Price Discovery in the U. Chakravarty, Gulen, and Mayhew analyze the price discovery between the stock market and the stock options market. Their analysis is based on an old sample and option quotes from a single options exchange the CBOE. You must be especially wary of overconfidence when trading online. Off-Campus Housing. Our leasing options include academic, year-round and summer, where applicable. Newly admitted single students are guaranteed on-campus housing for their first two years. I nformation on our social media sites includesMCC has much more to offer than I can include in a single letter.

Find out what is happening at MCC by visiting our calendar, Facebook and Twitter; take advantage of the many resources available to help you succeed; get to know your classmates and your professors; and, most of all, get involved! View my grades. It is an alternative to a single payment. The contract must be filled out online. Research on Option Trading StrategiesOptions are one of the most used financial instruments nowadays.

The goal of the project is to analyze different options trading strategies. In general, our goal is to calculate the prices of the different possibility of the stock and their probability, so we can have an expected value for the underlying, and therefore we will be able to calculate how much a single option costs. The Quintessential Option Pricing FormulaWe are formally concerned with pricing only a single option: the M-binary , which includes cash digitals, asset digitals and all possible power or turbo digitals.

Many exotic options can be expressed as sim-ple static portfolios of these digitals. It follows from the principle of static replication that the arbitrage-free price of these exotics must then be the corresponding value of their replicating portfolios. Trade Dollars are accepted for up to full time undergraduate tuition only. Select programs at capacity will be exempted from Trade Dollar participation. Payment plan options. Pay the balance in full and avoid any additional fees. Your tuition may be deferred if you submit documentation which verifies that you are eligible for tuition reimbursement benefits from your employer.

Pegged rates: currencies are pegged to a single currency or composite of currencies. Hans R. Stoll and Robert E. WhaleySecondary market trading in options and the role of the clear-inghouse are perhaps best illustrated with the help of a simple exam-ple. Liquidity thus requires sufficient competing investors, with no single investor having an overwhelming influence on the price either of the option or of the underlying asset. Reduce Costs in Trading Relationships. Customer Supplier. All rights reserved. Financial Derivatives Exchange-traded instrumentsThe third conditions which are thought of necessary for the establishment of futures trading are the presence of speculative capital and financial facilities for payment of.

Eligibility criteria for stocks on which derivatives trading may be permitted A stock on which stock option and single stock future contracts are proposed to be introduced is required to fulfill the following broad eligibility criteria:-? The stock shall be chosen from amongst the top stock in terms of average. The preferred method of check payment is through Trailhead via electronic check, free of charge. Unfortunately due to international and domestic banking regulations some currencies are unable to be traded on the open market or are otherwise unavailable.

In the instances where your country appears as an option but the currency is unavailable, you can select an alternative currency including U. Bellour's observation is valuable for the way it stresses the fragmentary, static nature of film quotes: in becoming photograms, they violate the "natural" logic of the film's development. But the fact that the photogram as quote is inorganic in its painterliness or theatricality is not the whole story.

More important is the fact that the photogram "exposes a film's textuality"; that is, it allows us to touch the hidden processes by which a film creates its own meanings. Paradoxically, then, the meaning or textuality of a film flashes into view precisely where the film's natural life is interrupted. Which is why to a certain extent the extent of our theoretical fumblings the filmic, very paradoxically, cannot be grasped in the film "in situation," "in movement," "in its natural state," but only in that major artefact, the photogram.

For a long time, I have been intrigued by the phenomenon of being drawn, even fascinated by frames taken from a film outside a cinema, in the pages of Cahiers du Cinema and of then losing everything in those photos. If we are to follow Bellour in seeing the photogram as the model of film quotation, then we are impelled to the conclusion that meaning is manifested only in quotes.

Meaning emerges in textual "anomalies," such as the photogram. What is proper to intertextuality is the introduction of a new mode of reading that explodes me linearity of the text. Each intertextual reference is the site of an alternative: either one keeps reading, seeing the reference as nothing more than one fragment among others, an integral part of the text's syntagmatics; or one returns to the original text, resorting to a kind of intellectual anamnesis whereby the intertextual reference appears as a "displaced" paradigmatic element issuing from a syntagmatic axis that has been forgotten.

This alternative, however, is not always possible to realize. The anomalies that emerge in a text, blocking its development, impel us toward an intertextual reading. This is because every "normative" narrative text possesses a certain internal logic. This logic motivates the presence of the various fragments of which the text is made.

If a fragment cannot find a weighty enough motivation for its existence from the logic of the text, it becomes an anomaly, forcing the reader to seek its motivation in some other logic or explanatory cause outside the text. The search is then conducted in the realm of intertextuality. Jenny's alternative is available only when the anomalous fragment can be convincingly integrated into the text in one of two ways—through the text's internal logic or by referring to another text.

Michael Riffaterre formulates this dilemma in the following way: "Semantic anomalies in linearity force [the reader] to seek a solution in nonlinearity. Riffaterre also suggests posing the dilemma in terms of an opposition between mimesis and semiosis. One could say that the textual anomaly a fragment that the reader or viewer is unable to integrate into the text in a convincing manner violates the calm of mimesis, the transparent and porous character of the sign.

But precisely where mimesis is violated, we begin to see vigorous traces of semiosis. In other words, we witness the birth of meaning, which is normally transparent wherever mimesis remains untroubled, dissolving into the effortless movement from signifier to signified.

This is because the quote violates the link between sign and objective reality the mimetic link , orienting the sign toward another text rather than a thing. Riffaterre observes: "This passage from mimesis to semiosis. Intertextuality can thus be seen to enrich meaning and to salvage the very linearity of narrative that it had compromised. In light of the foregoing, I would venture the following definition: The quote is a fragment of the text that violates its linear development and derives the motivation that integrates it into the text from outside the text itself.

From this point of view, what is traditionally considered a quote may end up not being one, while what is not traditionally seen as a quote may well be one. Let me clarify this point with a few examples. Jean-Luc Godard is well known as one of the most intertextually oriented of film directors. Several of his films are practically collages of quotes. Godard revealed his passion for quotation in his very first film, Breathless A bout de souffle. Godard himself was to explain:. My first films were purely the work of a film buff.

One could even make use of what one had seen before in the cinema for the sake of making explicit references. Some of the shots I took were connected to others that I had seen before, in Preminger, Cukor, etc. You have to put the blame on my taste for quoting, a taste I have always kept. But why blame me for it? In life people quote the things they like.

We have the right to quote whatever we like. So I show people who are always quoting; the only thing is that I arrange it so that whatever they quote also happens be to something that I like.

The Tradition

Breathless is riddled with all sorts of quotes, which Godard was more than happy to point out. The source of the widest layer of quotes in the film was the American film noir. Godard himself was to acknowledge that during the shooting he believed he was making a film in the same genre. She tries hanging it on one wall and then another, and then finally rolls it into a tube and looks through it at Michel. Then Patricia and Michel kiss, and Patricia goes into the bathroom, where she affixes the poster to the wall. There is nothing in this episode that might seem to violate the linear unfolding of the story line.

Yet Godard was the first to admit that the episode contained a hidden quote. When Patricia looks through the tube of the rolled-up poster, the film is quoting a scene from Samuel Fuller's Forty Guns, in which one of the heroes looks at his enemy through the sights of the rifle. The episode anticipates the hero's tragic death after he is betrayed by Patricia. At the same time, this episode is so organically embedded into the film's narrative, so transparent a part of the film's mimetic structure, that we need Godard's own commentary to recognize the Fuller reference in the heroine's spontaneous behavior.

Without Godard's help this quote would remain indiscernible—it would simply melt into the linear flow of the plot. A quote that Godard intended and believed obvious thus remains opaque to the viewer. This is a telling example of a buried quote, one that dissolves in mimesis. Indeed, I would dare to suggest that, prior to Godard's commentary, this episode, paradoxically enough, was not a quote. Let me turn now to another example, taken from Carl Theodor Dreyer's Vampyr The film begins with its hero, David Gray, on the bank of a river, where he finds a strange hotel.

The film's second shot shows us this hotel's unusual signpost, a winged angel, holding a bough in one hand and a wreath in the other. Gray books into the hotel and settles down to sleep. Later, just as the hero begins to dream, we once again see the hotel's signpost in close-up; immediately afterward, the owner of a nearby castle, whose inhabitants have all fallen victim to the vampire, enters the room where Gray lies sleeping.

I shall not dwell in greater detail on the film's plot I refer the reader to David Bordwell's very fine analysis of Vampyr, which he reads as a parable in which a death experience initiates the hero into a secret knowledge. What interests us here is the signpost. Had it appeared in a shot along with a frontal view of the building, it might escape the viewer's attention.

In fact it is always shown in an isolated close-up shot, never as part of the hotel facade. The obtrusive insertion of the signpost into the story seems particularly forced the second time it appears. We see Gray go to his room after inspecting the hotel, locking the door behind him. There follows a caption, which tells us that the moonlight shed an unnatural light on things, filling the hero with a terror that would haunt him even in his sleep.

Then we once more have a shot of the signpost, followed by another of Gray asleep in his bed, lying on his back. The key to his door now turns, and the owner of the castle enters the room. Clearly there is something anomalous about this unexpected outdoor shot of the signpost appearing in the foregoing sequence. For this very reason, it is a quote. The bough in the angel's hand gives us an early clue to the signpost's meaning. It reminds us naturally of Aeneas's golden bough in Virgil's epic. Aeneas, we recall, required the golden bough in order to cross the River Styx into the underworld and return alive.

The reference to Virgil immediately gives Gray's experiences in the film a special significance: his adventure is equated metaphorically with Aeneas's descent into the underworld. The film also makes other references to the Aeneid. For example, a conversation. These are precisely the first two sounds Aeneas hears in the underworld: "Huge Cerberus, monstrously couched in a cave confronting them, made the whole region echo with his three-coated barking. Aeneas, passing its entrance, the watch-dog neutralised, strode rapidly from the bank of that river of no return. At once were voices heard, a sound of mewling and wailing, ghosts of infants sobbing there at the threshold.

The anomaly of the signpost's unexpected appearance in the montage sequence is thus resolved once we recognize the reference to the Aeneid. The connection is convincing enough for us to integrate the signpost into the film's context—yet difficulties remain. The angel that holds the bough and the wreath obviously has nothing to do with Virgil.

Nor is it entirely clear why the angel's image should function as a signpost to a hotel that in fact plays a minor role in the film. The hotel is merely the place where Gray goes to sleep and where, in what is part dream and part reality, he is visited by the owner of the castle, who gives him a book about vampires. After this moment Gray leaves the hotel, never to return. From the point of view of narrative economy, then, Gray might have more usefully stumbled onto the castle rather than the hotel and asked to stay there.

An intertextual reading allows us to resolve this problem also. I would suggest that the signpost is itself a "quote" from Baudelaire's sonnet "La Mort des pauvres," in which the image of the hotel of death appears:. The book mentioned in the first quoted verse might explain the mystical book that appears in the hotel. Baudelaire describes death both as a hotel and as an angel bearing the "gift of dreams. There actually may be yet another literary subtext here, Balzac's "L'Auberge rouge," which, like Vampyr, is also marked by images of death and blood.

Michael Riffaterre has shown that the Baudelaire sonnet is intertextually linked to a poem by Jean Cocteau, "L'Endroit et l'envers. The most intriguing moment in the poem is an extraordinarily dense passage in which Cocteau discusses the signpost on the hotel of death:. The signpost, like the book, here foretells the future. Michael Riffaterre has shown that it is not the swan itself that prophesies but its punning connotations, as well as other paragrams hidden in the text.

If the prophetic function of the signpost on the "hotel of death" is marked by a bloody sign, then we can better understand its link to vampirism, as well as to books about vampires that act as portents of encounters with death. Unlike the Godard quote, the signpost in Vampyr is inserted in such a way as to stand out as anomalous in any sequence of shots. It is never shown as part of the hotel facade: it is thus cut off from the diegetic level and exists in isolation from the space of the narrative.

Neither can the angel on the signpost be understood in its relation to the general plot without referring to evidence from outside the film. Indeed, the Aeneid is by no means necessarily the end of the story. This apparently "illogical" moment can be recuperated only to the extent that we can recover. An anomalous moment can reenter the text organically only if it is recognized as a quote. What I have said so far might give rise to objections. It could be argued that we have no hard evidence that Dreyer knew Baudelaire, Cocteau, and so forth. I would respond that this question has no relevance to our inquiry.

Even if Dreyer had something else in mind, Baudelaire and Cocteau allow us to inscribe the signpost into the film, creating an intertextual link that exists irrespective of the director's intentions. The signpost motif is of interest from another point of view as well. We have seen that the integration of an anomalous textual moment into its context cannot always rely on just one outside source such as the Aeneid. It may require two, three, or even more texts, making it a case of hyperquotation.

This case is far from being rare; indeed, it may well be characteristic of intertextuality as a phenomenon. A quote becomes a hyperquote whenever one source is insufficient for its integration into the fabric of a text. The case of hyperquotation raises several further questions.

The hyperquote does not just open a text up to other texts, thereby simply broadening its horizon of meaning. It places a number of texts and significations one on top of the other. The hyperquote essentially becomes a kind of semantic funnel, drawing in all the competing meanings and texts, even if the latter contradict each other and are not readily reconciled into one unitary and dominant meaning. True, the Aeneid and the poems by Baudelaire and Cocteau allowed us to integrate the signpost in Vampyr into the remainder of the film, but only at the cost of invoking a range of diverse intertexts.

In the final analysis, the integration of a quote in a film is won only at a cost: a hyperquote can bring order to a text only by erecting a new Tower of Babel, a babble of meanings. The dilemma of the hyperquote can be resolved in one of two ways. On the one hand, intertextuality can be seen as an arbitrary accumulation of associations, quotes, and voices, in the spirit of Godard's claim that people quote "whatever they like": "In my notes, where I put down everything that I might need for my film, I might even put down a phrase from Dostoevskii if I like it. Why make a fuss? If you want to say something, there's only one solution: to say it.

Roland Barthes came to similar conclusions, which he formulated in the following way: "I savor the sway of formulas, the reversal of origins, the ease which brings the anterior text out of the subsequent one. Nonetheless, the majority of scholars have taken a different position. In Laurent Jenny's words, "Intertextuality does not imply a confused and mysterious accumulation of influences, but the work of transformation and assimilation of several texts performed by a centering text which retains its position of leadership in meaning.

I propose to use the term 'intertextuality' only when one is able to recover elements in a text that were structured prior to the text itself. Truly, only if we can detect a structural isomorphism existing between texts or parts of texts is it possible for us to unify meaning within the centering framework of a "leading text. Structural isomorphism is particularly evident in paragrams, where two messages are superimposed and thereby inserted into a single textual structure. It is no coincidence that Julia Kristeva sees paragrams as performing a "centering within the framework of a unitary meaning.

How else could one conceive of "symmetrical" or "partial" negation? The term has been borrowed from the culture of heraldic insignias, where it referred originally to a coat of arms that contained a copy of itself reproduced in a smaller size. He was referring, in the case of the plays, to the characters theatrically enacting the situation in which they actually found themselves.

ou la légende d’un antihéros des temps postmodernes

This change in proportion has semantic consequences: it gives the copy the qualities of a handmade object and grants the maker the experience of mastering an object, compensating "for the renunciation of its sensory dimensions by allowing for the acquisition of its intelligible dimensions. Iurii Lotman has defined this phenomenon as follows: "Duplication is the simplest way of making the code a part of a text's acknowledged structure.

To be sure, no reflection is fully accurate, always involving a variation, a transformation that is stressed by the repetition itself. The concrete production of meaning, however, is often the result of a play of reflections and is quickly submerged in this play. We appear to witness the very birth of meaning, and this is an illusion that always somehow accompanies the phenomenon of "pure representation. These can be seen as a kind of "small-scale model. Let us look at some examples of how this form of quotation generates meaning. In the episode from Godard's Breathless discussed earlier, we are actually shown several paintings: apart from the Renoir poster there are two reproductions from Picasso.

One, showing an idyllic young couple, appears at the moment Patricia says, offscreen, "I would like for us to be Romeo and Juliet. As we see it, Michel. People think that you're bluffing, and you win. Both these instances involve a duplication of meaning bordering on tautology. To show a painting of a young couple while someone is speaking of Romeo and Juliet, or the youth with the mask while someone is speaking of deception, adds nothing of substance to what is being said by the actors. And yet by virtue of being juxtaposed alongside quotations from Picasso, these passing comments do seem to gain a certain visibility and weight, acquiring something of the representational character of Picasso's works.

In the given instance, meaning is not so much revealed as introduced into a context marked by heightened representativity, where it becomes all the more palpable and unitary for having been repeated. The quotes here function much like a teacher's comments in red ink. In Dreyer's Gertrud , the heroine is tormented by a persistent dream. She dreams that she is naked and being pursued by a pack of dogs. In the same film we see a large Gobelin tapestry showing the naked Diana being torn apart by Acteon's dogs.

The dream is thus duplicated by the tapestry. The same motif is also clearly projected onto Gertrude's life. The dream's meaning, as Pascal Bonitzer puts it, is "as transparent as it is lapidary: the dogs are the men to whose desires, as crude simulacra of the love she seeks, she abandons herself and by whom she is torn apart.

In fact we are dealing not with a doubling but with a tripling of the same collision in different signifying systems: the words of the heroine and the tapestry. The multiplication of representation becomes analogous to the nagging persistence of dreams. Repetition here imitates the repetition compulsion generated by a trauma that has been repressed into the unconscious. These repetitions do not just reproduce a certain meaning: they point to the presence of a certain repressed semantic kernel whose significance is consistently expressed as other, different, mysterious.

Repetition thus simultaneously asserts and denies that meaning is univocal. Variations in repetition can thus lead simultaneously to a centering and a decentering of meaning. This can happen in more than one way. Shoedsack and Irving Pichel. This somber Gothic film relates the adventures of two young people, Rainsford and Eva, who are shipwrecked off the shore of an island belonging to the sinister maniac Count Zaroff.

The count agrees to release his two unwilling guests if they survive a hunt against them that he himself will lead. Working for the count is a terrifying bearded servant named Ivan. The film begins with a depiction of the door. A close-up shot shows us the strange knocker to the castle door in the shape of a centaur pierced by an arrow with a young woman, no longer able to resist, in his hands. Then from off-camera we see Rainsford's arm appear, lift the knocker, and knock thrice on the door.

The centaur holding the woman in his arms appears again on the Gobelin tapestry that adorns the castle's staircase. This time we clearly notice the similarity between the centaur's face and the servant Ivan's sinister visage. Belaboring the point further, the directors at one point deliberately place Ivan against the tapestry, making him stand immobile until the similarity becomes unavoidable.

Not only does the representation of the centaur holding the woman appear twice in the film on the knocker and on the tapestry ; it also establishes a link with one of the film's characters.

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The triple character of these autotextual relations creates a more complex space of references and reciprocal mirroring, and with it the illusion of semantic depth, here particularly effective thanks to the specific variations in the distribution of motifs. In a powerful psychoanalytic reading of the film, T. Yet the very image of the centaur, and the mythic layer related to it, allows us to widen the range of the film's references considerably.

The figure of the predatory centaur belongs to classical Greek mythology. Centaurs abducted the wives of the Lapithae, the centaur Eurytion tried to abduct the bride of Pirithous, and Nestor attacked Hercules' wife Deianira. Dante placed the centaurs Nessus, Chiron, and Pholus in hell, where they were compelled to pursue sinners in an endless hunt:.

The Dante quote alone is enough to give the film an added metaphoric meaning that allows us to reconsider the shipwreck, the menacing swamps on the island, and the very meaning of the hunt. Yet this is not all. More significant is the fact that this multiplication of representations strips the characters of reality, dissolving them into reflections and symbols. Reality becomes the bearer of a meaning that cannot always itself be formulated. Pascal Bonitzer has rightly observed: "The shot of a painting always provokes a doubling of vision and gives a sense of mystery to the image, a mystery that can be understood in religious terms, or like a detective mystery that has to be solved.

Hence the necessity to create doubles and accumulate more and more references. Nor is it a coincidence that the film The Most Dangerous Game effectively combines a criminal case with some kind of religious mystery if we take into account the reference to Dante. Griffith's A Drunkard's Reformation , a film we shall have occasion to return to in chapter 2.

The film was conceived against the backdrop of a campaign launched toward the end of by New York's Mayor George McClellan for the moral regeneration of the cinema industry. In the first scene, we see the head of the family returning home drunk and terrorizing his wife and eight-year-old daughter.

He is invited by his daughter to the theater, where he effectively sees the first scene in the film reenacted onstage: a degenerate alcoholic organizes a drunken orgy and then terrorizes his wife and daughter. What he has seen onstage awakens the father's conscience: he goes back home, gives up his drinking habit, and is seen in the film's final episode in an idyllic family reunion by the hearth. This duplication of the plot in a theatrical performance is a classical trope; the repetition gives the film a didactic flavor, whereby the plot is viewed in the mirror of theatrical representation.

The publicity release put out by Biograph contains one highly significant detail. The play-within-the-play seen in the film is said to be an adap-. Of course the general theme of alcoholism is common to the play and Zola's novel. Yet it is hard to believe that the film's viewers would have necessarily identified L'Assommoir as the text behind the play. The film does not acknowledge the novel in its credits, and the plot of the play has little in common with the novel, which has less to do with the decline of the male drunkard in Zola's novel he is called Coupeau than with the fall of a woman, Gervaise, herself a heavy drinker as well as a streetwalker who cheats on Coupeau with another man.

There is none of this in A Drunkard's Reformation, and the analogue to Gervaise in the play, like the heroine of the film itself, is a pure, innocent, and all-suffering woman fallen victim to a husband in decline. The monologue continued interminably. She was in the greenhouse, under the ardent foliage, and she dreamed that her husband was walking in and catching her in the arms of her son.

She suffered horribly, losing consciousness, when the last death rattle of Phaedra, repentant and dying in the throes of poison, made her open her eyes once more. The curtain was falling. Would she have the strength to take poison one day? How petty and shameful her drama was, when compared to the ancient epic! The novel also describes the performance of a series of tableaux vivants based on the amorous exploits of Narcissus and the nymph Echo.

The system of mirrors is here reversed. For Zola it was essential that the theatrical performance depict a situation of falsehood, since it was his conviction that the theater, at least in its classical form, was a place of falsehood, in opposition to the naturalist novel: "Here one always has to lie," he observed.

A difference in the way the text is coded is thus projected onto the novel's own drama of deception. As will become clearer from my argument in chapter 2, the director Griffith also came to view the theater as a place of falsehood, deceit, and vice. On the one hand, it duplicates the text and thereby emphasizes its message as unambiguously didactic. Meaning is unified and thereby "narrowed. Meaning is opened up, made more enigmatic, ambiguous, even to the point of being reversed. There is, at the same time, a dissolution of unitary meaning in a form that acquires increasing complexity. The third text, by layering form on form, helps to overcome the univocal nature of content.

For this reason, the third text works in a manner that is diametrically opposed to the second text. The accumulation of textual doubles impedes the freezing of meaning in specific representational systems, such as theater and painting, even as these very systems are absorbed into the fabric of the film. The theory of the sign elaborated by Charles Sanders Peirce sheds some light on the work of the "third text. The third element, for Peirce, was essential to the emergence of meaning as such.

This element inserts a difference into the tautology, a difference that allows for the creation of meaning: "Three things east, west and up are required to define the difference between right and left. It is precisely this secondary sign, when it is joined to the relation between the representamen and the object, that allows for the manipulation of signs, and hence meaning, via the arrangement of signs into chains. Peirce referred the interpretant to the sphere of "pure rhetoric," whose task was to "ascertain the laws by which in every scientific intelligence one sign gives birth to another, and especially one thought brings forth another.

Paul de Man, departing from Peirce's triadic model, has pointed out that rhetoric considers the "third element" responsible for the creation of. This creates a situation in which "it is impossible to decide by grammatical or other linguistic devices which of the two meanings that can be entirely compatible prevails. Rhetoric radically suspends logic and opens up vertiginous possibilities of referential aberration. The interpretant is important to us for several reasons.

First, it allows us to overcome the notion of the link between text and intertext as the link between the source and its text-successor; the related notions of "borrowing" and "influence" can also be abandoned. Second, it allows us to account far more convincingly for the work that goes into the creation of meaning, with all its displacements and transformations. Third, the interpretant, as the third text in an intertextual triangle, is responsible for the appearance of what Mikhail Bakhtin called "semantic hybrids," which practically all artistic works are to some extent.

The interpretant is responsible for the parodic status of a text to the extent that I and T pr are unable to affect each other without conflict or contradiction. The residual traces of these contradictions in a text can be seen as parody. To conclude this chapter, I should like to look at one more film that shows how structural isomorphism between intertextually connected texts can create meaning as an enigma or mystery, and how the interpretant is involved in the creation of this enigma.

I am thinking of Orson Welles's Citizen Kane Let us recall the basic plot: the film begins with the hero, Charles Foster Kane, dying in his castle, Xanadu. His last word before dying is "Rosebud. The newspaper and newsreel magnate Rawlston orders the journalist Thompson to investigate the meaning of Kane's last word, which he believes to be the key to the dead man's life and personality.

The film is a kind of mosaic—and puzzle—made up of the visualized stories about Kane that Thompson hears during the course of his investigation but that finally do not help him get any closer to the secret of Rosebud. The viewer, however, is given the answer. As the film ends, the workers who are burning the accumulated. A picture of a rosebud, with a caption provided, adorns the sled. The film repeatedly insists on the link between the word Rosebud and the glass ball, a children's toy that has apparently hypnotized Kane.

Kane's Xanadu naturally recalls Coleridge's poetic fragment "Kubla Khan: Or, a Vision in a Dream," whose first verses are quoted in the film. Kane's very name seems to recall "Khan," and the film is filled with motifs taken from the Coleridge poem. The River Alph cf. Yet these individual motifs are overshadowed by a more important fact.

Coleridge had maintained that the vision of Kubla Khan had appeared to him in a dream induced by opium. Waking, the author had begun to write down his vision, only to be interrupted by a visitor: "And on his return to his room, [he] found, to his no small surprise and mortification, that though he still retained some vague and dim recollection of the general purport of the vision, yet, with the exception of some eight or ten scattered lines and images, all the rest had passed away like the images on the surface of a stream into which a stone has been cast, but, alas!

In this sense it is typologically similar in form to Citizen Kane, which is also constructed around an enigmatic vision. In fact Citizen Kane points to yet another work of literature, in a way that is evident if less persistent. Several times during the course of the film, the hypothesis is advanced that Rosebud refers to a woman's name. Since the significance of the name remains a mystery to the very end of the film, the viewer is compelled to seek some basis for including Dickens among the various subtexts of Citizen Kane.

The Mystery of Edwin Drood, like Coleridge's poem, was never completed by its author, and the keys to its investigative mystery. The novel also betrays several immediate parallels to the film. Like Citizen Kane, the novel involves an attempt to decipher the hero's last words: there is a scene in which futile attempts are made to unravel the words uttered by an opium smoker during his trance.

These opium-induced hallucinations of the hero, Jasper, like Coleridge's visions in his poem, take up a considerable portion of the novel. The novel begins with Jasper taking up the hermeneutic challenge of deciphering an "opium-text": "When any distinct word has been flung into the air, it has had no sense or sequence. Wherefore 'unintelligible! Significantly, the story of the "Abyssinian maid," Susan, is also echoed by Dickens's novel.

Kane makes a dogged effort to make a singer out of her. It has thus the form of a discursive catopter — a mature and fascinating hypostasis of literary specularity. The prose is no foreign to such formulae of reflexion. In terms of the symbolic order, the epic imaginary from Eminescian proses hints at an object — namely, the book — which sums at least some fundamental specular functions.

Extremely frequent in these proses, in one way or another, the book is a symbol of knowledge, often the magic one. It includes the law of the universe, and its reading engenders control upon the world. On appearing in the text, the sign of the book indicates the presence of certain processes of reevaluation and essentialization of the world on basis of the verbal act. In other words, it is assumed the power of the logos to extend over and sometimes even to instaurate a cosmos.

Following the physical portrait, his interior portrait constitutes a model of intelligence and thought, realized by describing his reading obssessions. To the same extent, the old book also expresses the means to activate a typically Romantic ideal: the search for origins. Of course, they can only provide fragments of the original truth. Yet, their great number offers the chance to reconstitute, on summing up, the big Truth. One of the books is particularly striking in this respect, as it gives the stunning chance of direct acces to the whole Truth. It is the magic book of master Ruben, which Dionis mysteriously comes in possession of — a book which transports the hero in the world of all possibilities.

He transcends his human condition and becomes a demonic genius, a spirit of the world. On examining the occult text, Dionis discovers the essence of the universe and of the existence. It assigns the obscure and hardly comprehensible topography of the universe, but also its lively, pulsatile, organic nature. By reading or merely touching the sign one can amount to world portals. Time and space are no longer insurmountable fatalities. Therefore, the text invites to a fascinated reading, through the symbolic identification it engenders.

It is nevertheless a dangerous instrument, as the blood sign reunites the splendor, as well as the horror of its power. The book must be read seven by seven pages in order to make sense. Eminescu, Opere [Works], vol. Academiei, The world, as product of creation, subjects to him entirely. The possibility to create is therefore practically impossible. He may be right. It is the metaphor of life. To some extent, such a definition of the novel as poetry of reality is paradoxical.

One cannot but speculate, by comparison, upon a possible definition of poetry proper. Poetry might then be the metaphor of mythical thought and feeling. A reality developed in its historical, political, social and even economic data. However, the opening phrase hints at the true content of the text, in matters of importance and extent within the narative structure.

Namely, it refers to the dynamics of the characters, their inner and outer conduct, in respect to the rigors of this reality. In the human being thus lies the poetry of reality — here the substance vital to the construction of a novel. I opened it and came across the history of a Scottish king on the verge of falling prey to death on account of an embalmed human skull. And could you imagine whom the litographer had to play the king of Scotland in his engravings? The explanation is easy to provide: economy.

It was he, trait for trait. What bizzare coincidences can occur on this earth, i said to myself, a smile lighting up my dreaminess. Could a similar history such as that which i was reading ever befall a Tasso? Here is an ad hoc definition of fictionality. It is the expression of an advanced awareness of literariness. By its structure of successive frameworks, the novel suggests obviously enough such an awareness of the creation as cultural phenomenon.

However, they are subjected to rational control to an extent that reaches theoretical heights. Geniu pustiu seems to be telling us that the novel is based on a certain reason of creation, as well as on awareness of convention, which leads us to read a character with an historical existence in a fictional code. The portrait of Tasso as king of Spain represents a deceitful mirroring of reality into fiction.

Once set the laws of fictional conventions, the world thus inaugurated has no boundary. Geniu pustiu hence proposes, from the very beginning, a conscious reading, highly aware of the conventional nature the book has. It is a proud and risky bet. The unveiling of the convention mines the fiction and its capacity of seduction. The novel displays its articulation, putting at stake the fascinatory power of texture and imaginary, besides any obstacles. The raw even brutal force of the book — this is one of the superthemes of this short fragment of literary and aesthetic theory of the novel, from the preamble to Geniu pustiu.

One can distinguish in Eminescian proses several ways of reflecting the consciousness of convention. They constitute steps towards a heightened selfawareness of the authorial voice. We can depict from their development the modalities of control the author applies to his own text, the formulae he resorts in order to structure some lines of force.

These lines would become paradigmatic attributes of the Eminescian textual atmosphere. The first of these forms relates to what we could call textual mimicry. The phenomenon has, in its turn, several forms of manifestation, determined by certain interior motivations. We can name in this respect the portrayal in byronian pose and also the virgin, titanic or fantastic landscapes. No wonder it happens so, as Romanticism is a school movement, with a rather rigorously composed table of characteristics moulded from a certain spirit of the age and a forma mentis philosophically founded.

Secondly, the text makes use of certain specific Eminescian typologies, which it here imposes. We can speak of a mature form of intentionality of creation, by which the work constructs its defining mark in the context of the general history of the movement and of literature on the whole.

They operate as fundamental articulations of the construction, supporting, as predicates of the narrative sentence, its tensions and gravitations. Some of these typologies seem to come from the space of poetry and bring into the epic specific figures, elements or hypostases the angel face, the face from the castle, the dead lover, the elegiac metaphysics, the rebellious metaphysics; the dome, the wood, the palace, the basilica, the cave, water mirrors; the romantic love, the contemplativeness, the revolt, the irony.

Others are however prose-specific. The same occurs with the typologies of the elementary, were we to invoke concentric universes and their structures od successiveness and centring. One can, of course, dwell upon the fact that some of the texts represent project drafts developed in other stories. Yer, the genetic criterion is of lesser importance here. Eminescu moves, almost compulsively, around the same typological and imaginary nuclei. These poetic intarsions hold various functions in the epic structure they belong to.

There is, first, the case when the poetic fragment cannot be detached, as idea, subject and vision from the prose where it is included. The poem then functions as a cosmetic artifice, meant to highlight the lines already traced by the epic, by means of the mannerist volutes of the lyrical discourse. In a Romantic age deeply marked by poetry, considered to be the mythical language of essential truths, prose resorts to such structures at least from two causes.

One is aesthetic, on the one hand, as the language of poetry allows discursive mannerizations otherwise hardly acceptable in prose. On the other hand, as expression of a spirit of the age, poetry can paradoxically provide more plausible subtance to a portrait. A character in love, for instance, claiming its passion in verses, falls under a Romantic convention unanimously accepted.

Even if such a conduct is conventional, the character appears so the more convincing, due to the pressure of convention. The best example is the love poem from Geniu pustiu, written by Toma Nour and dedicated to his lover, Poesis. Toma elaborates the poem in the period of utmost bloom of erotic feeling, when the love scenario is not yet overshadowed. The verses express indistinctly the same intensity of feeling, the same supercategorial connection and the similar effects upon the character in love that the discourse in prose expressed until then. No wonder that the aquatic mirror appears in the paste of lyrical imaginary.

It brings forth clear signals of specular processes leading beyond mere stylisms. One should read in the mirror of sea from the poem, the symbolic identification with the Romantic soul of the lover. But the verses also offer the faithful reflexion of what prose expressed until then. The poetic fragment functions as a golden mirror transferring in the mythical and metaphorical language of essences that which the prose could only express within rational categories of the real. Another function of the poetic intarsion from the epic text reveals when the poem differs in its vision from the frame-prose.

The poem provides another interpretation of the same theme, enabling the extension or the nuancing of the perspective. The short story is based on the compensatory schemes of the parallel universes, between which Dionis perpetually oscillates. The third such universe is actually the poem itself, since the allienating reality it describes is transfigured and fictionalized by means of irony.

Irony is also related to an ontological slapstick transference. It occurs when Dionis identifies in a sort of projection with the tomcat inside the room, which hence becomes a kind of totemic animal of the character. Woe to you and yours! Kneel in awe, o cats and cower!. Of course, the poem is equally a pamphlet meant for the society which maintains art particularly, poetry at the periphereal limit of existence and ignores the inspired word of the minstrel. III-IV, , p. Imaginary of the private space. The successive framings take place by changing narrative voices and time of narration.

Geniu pustiu is the clearest example in this respect. Outside the time scheme, the succesion of narrative voices and discourses they produce is even more important. The narrator of the frame-story placed in Bucharest, in the second half of the 19th century functions as discursive mirror for Toma Nour and his romantic story. This narrator constructs a possible perspective upon Toma and his personality, as one can infer from the direct friendship relation of the two. A new image of Toma is hence born — a subjective image about himself, within the dynamics, directly told, of his inner feelings and motivations.

The two perspectives, of the narrator and of his own, build a more complete image for Nour, who reamains the best constructed character of Geniu pustiu. This happens in the sense that the tandem narrator — character henceforth narrated can be applied to couple Toma Nour — Poesis. The woman is moreover shaped through self-discoursivization, namely the letter addressed to Toma, whom he reads when Poesis is already dead. The authors of the respective letters had already left the scene of the world. Finally, the forth form of autospecularity depends directly on irony and its discursive strategies.

The sketch is a refracted, reversed image of the Eminescian epic scenarios. He went well up one fathom, he would step up stiffly, of which reason the bad mankind used to call him: pope Melesteu. His hair and beard were red, which made him look more like as a thief rather than as a pope, but what has one got to do with it? His father had been village swineherd and, his son being lazy, naughty and tardy, he had thought he would be good for a priest [ Or he would make the chorister tell down a prayer, while he would accompany him by ghaghaghagha! What he is saying? On reading, the kamelavkion would fall upon his eyes and pope would grossly revile.

Be it inside or outside church, he would give no damn about it Do not fall! The grotesque model replaces the heroic model. Just as sterile misticism replaces metaphysics. Teach me to praise the tragic of this scene, look at little Buchilat jumping for the tolll rope and drawing it nearer, look at the ox alerting the village and waking it up with the whick, as if at a monastery.

Pope would shout in the church making the plasters on the walls fall. And who, o, thou, muse could call those illustrious names of those who gathered at the cemetery to put the church on fire [? And who does my eye also meet in the shinning lines? And who does outshine you in brave deeds, you ram-gatherer Gobbler? Finally, the mere fight replaces the heroic battle in this grotesque anti-world. The topsy-turvy world reaveals ist truths in the ironic mirror. It is just another paradox of specularity. A part of the text is written in an almost avantguarde formula.

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More exactly, the sketch parallels, on two columns, the diverging discourses of the World and the Destiny. Each of the columns expresses a modality to characterize some individuals, taken one by one. On the other hand, the same scheme produces a certain dramatic effect, as the two perspectives mirrored reveal sad truths about the human kind. The text opens with an ironic excursus on novel theory. Its most important function is to express the conscience and self-detachement of the authorial voice which is rather less frequent in the literature of the time.

It is the preamble necessary to an acute critique applied to World and Destiny, according to whose laws genius composers, poets and prose writers beg in Wien, Berlin or Paris. World to dictate M. Destiny to write: M. The reality of the text becomes thus deceitful, since as well as inside and outside its borders see the signature from the end of the sketch , the same initials are used to name the author and the character. So the more as, we already know it, the biographical detail confessed is real.

We can observe, however, the erasement of borders between written text and reality, or at least between its fictional and nonfictional elements. We can assert the text exceeds the margins of its pages and covers. The text overflows into the world, overwhelmingly. And if the text represents an interpretation of the world, its utmost desire is to replace the mediocre absolute truths of the real by the Great Relative Truth of interpretation, on coming out of the stage into the hall.

The proof for that is the open dialogue with the hypothetical reader, led according to very non-conformist rules. The impoliteness of the voice sarcastic to the assumed vexed reader is doubled by the use of an obviously degraded language a sort of merchandise-language, as the one described in the poem Cum negustorii din Constantinopole The result of that is the apparent disfunctionality of the text, in its capacity to link the issuer and the reader.

A gesture half amused, half protesting to the writing model of the time, as well as to its own authorial demarche. Moreover, they are equally representations even fractured, sometimes of a daring adventure of the writing being, who ceaselessly searches for its own definition, inside and all around the fiction, in the world anxiously peopled by relative truths. By assuming the perspective of imagology, the present essay tries to identify the major representations of Italy in postwar Romanian literature, representations which generally oscillate between the image of the paradisiac mother country and that of the forbidden country.

Non ha rappresentato uno spazio di formazione propriamente detto, o almeno non in accezione pedagogica: i giovani romeni, appena allontanatisi da Bisanzio, andavano a studiare in Occidente prevalentemente in Francia e Germania. Vi sono diverse categorie e generi che contribuiscono alla configurazione di queste rappresentazioni: reportages di viaggio, diari, romanzi, poemi. I miei argomenti, lungamente preparati insieme a Marian Papahagi sono stati convincenti.

Mentre si trova nel treno Roma-Venezia, il poeta A. Come sbalordirlo e incatenarlo in una passione da cui non possa librarsi per un tempo. Tempo eccellente, sole primaverile, pochi turisti, tempo a disposizione per passeggiate e dolce far niente. Il primo viaggio in treno lo fa nel , quando parte da Bucarest insieme ad una delegazione di scrittori romeni. Lo zio Umberto ci amava molto e ci mandava sempre dei regali dalla sua Italia, sognando di portarvici una volta. Baconsky, Remember. Ebbene, queste reazoni sono e saranno difficili da spiegare. Per quale ragione una persona mentalmente equlibrata si possa trovare sul punto di perdere la ragione per il rifiuto di un banale passaporto?

Quali reti interiori si sciolgono? A volte mi vergogno anche di mettere il cibo sulla tavola. Ma va! E fa un cenno di 11 Dato che i due scrittori arrivano a Stoccolma per la presentazione dei libri, Gabriela Melinescu fa, nello stesso diario, delle brevi annotazioni sul suo conto. Sono loro che ti han fatto ricco. Venite con me! Ma non sono solo questi incontri casuali che interessano gli scrittori romeni, ma anche gli italiani in genere. Ma ti rendi conto? Solo nel ritorna in Romania di cui semte costantemente nostalgia.

Ana Blandiana, O silabisire a lumii, pp. Solo affermate! E una distinzione un po manichea Certo che anche noi abbiamo contestato e contestiamo ancora Forse solo le abitudini Penso che fra qualche tempo forse procederemo anche noi nello stesso modo Vuoi soffrire ogni volta che vedi una cartina? Ibidem, p. By dwelling upon such issues as the European identity reflected in literature, the action of trans-national cultural stereotypes or the construction of canon, the present essay debates from an interdisciplinary perspective on the theoretical and concrete foundations of the concept of European literature.

This is the case of the idea of European literature, it is the subject matter of the comparatists, of the theoreticians of culture, possibly of the philosophers and political analysts. Less, of the writers. Neither do I believe that the great artists melt away in the indistinctness of some exterior desiderata, of foreign affairs, nor do I believe that, writing is related voluntarily to exclusively European marks, but to values and ideals of Europe as paradigm and cultural experience of the freedom of thinking, of democracy and tolerance, of the real cultural dialogue, where the models and the national cultural values could be respected, naturally and organically integrated in diversity, acknowledged and accepted beyond the ethnic, national, religious specificity.

From the old Germany, mother to us all, Nerval to the old Europe, mother to us all, the romantic spirit — the digger of the roots, of the legendary traditions, of the northern or Mediterranean mythologies, of the exoticism of the marginalia — aspires simultaneously both to centrality and to the acknowledgement within the strong nucleus of the major cultures as well as to universality.

The trajectory towards the fulfillment of the European unity ideal is rather difficult and consists of the stages of the definitization of the national consciousness, then the ones of the dramatic historical influences, highlighted by the 20th century wars, by the treaties and geopolitical agreements. Beyond this socio-political, ideological or diplomatic tumult of the definition of the European order throughout the centuries of modernity, the literature and the arts have built, have reflected and have perpetuated the spirit of Europe.

Compagnon, [], , by the acceptance and assimilation of the marginalia thanks to the translations, the debates among the academic, literary and artistic elites. The moment of the highest effervescence — the avant-gardes and the programmatic modernism of the 20th century which have synchronized the rhythms of the small cultures to the pulse of the metropolis, to the experimental dynamism, to the cosmopolite European spirit roughly speaking.

Paris, Vienna, Milan, Zurich were at the time the centers of the latest tradition of the new, they become the dream of every writer, passage spaces to the form of seizing of the universe. Europe was opening up by the great metropolis. The romantic Titanism, the imperialism of the modernist subject reconfigured in the image of the artist as a common person, as a person integrant to the crowds, dandy and child Ch. Baudelaire revived in the cosmopolite spirit of the European intelligence in the first decades of the 20th century. Moreover, on the tracks of the integrative romantic aspirations, Europe represents both the center and a boundless homeland.

A homeland without materiality, a chimaeric realm of the homeless such as Apollinaire , of the exiled or the excommunicated such as Ovid, Dante, Cioran , of the cultural self-exiled such as Tzara, Eliot, Pound , of the converted cosmopolites, trying to get to a center the example of the same paradoxical Apollinaire, then T. Europe and the New Spirit. A representative example of this referring ambiguity to the center called Europe, to the indistinct, imageless homeland can be found, in this sense, in Guillaume Apollinaire.

This one will dialectically selfdefine: bastard permanently searching for a plural identity; homeless, intending by his deeds to obtain the acknowledgement of the French citizenship. As a continuation of M. For this reason, in his poetry, two divergent attitudes will cohabit on the background of the dramatic structure of the split subject. The present is but the coordinate which instills in him the thirst for real, involving the ego in a dynamic search which progressively leads to the abolishment of nostalgia by self-mockery and mystification, by projecting it in a continuous anticipation.

His appetite for the reality of the industrial modernity justifies only at the level of the compensation in imaginary. The euphoria of the rhythms of the prosaic existence, although it contaminates the modern traveler, does not save the ego from the crisis of the loss of unity with the sacred, from the painful memories or from the experience of the failure. Author of a contradictory poetics, Apollinaire will rewrite, on the one hand, French folk rhythms, toying with the sentimental harmony, on the other hand he will nourish the imaginary, as well as the syntax of his poems, from the mechanomorph sensitivity, from the aggressive rhythm of the modern world preferred by the Italian futurists.

Raymond , in a certain sense, inculcates upon the French poet the verve of the epic, dramatic tensions obtained by the transcription of the rough sensations, unaltered by the stylistic tradition of the symbolism or of the refined, decadent modernism. Jeudy just as with Whitman, F. But Apollinaire does not equalize the mechanism and the body, the human existence is made of the same ineffable substance: of dreaming, melancholy, failure, hazard, accidents of the optimism or usual reflections on fragments of the revived existence from the depth of the innocent past of childhood.

Although he was a defender of the avant-garde, critic and theoretician of the futurism and cubism, prophet of the new tendencies of an innovating radicalism and mentor of some movements such as Dadaism and Surrealism, Apollinaire is the poet who detests the idea of poetic avant-garde school and remains a supporter of the equilibrium, privilege of the classic doctrines. It is a paradoxical posture, but it is justified in an onto-poetic manner, both in the search of a center, and out of fear of fixity and fixation.

Modern poets about poetry, p. It can thus be noticed that the new artistic sensitivity feeds, even in the 20th century, on the deposits of the European tradition, Apollinaire, T. Eliot or Ezra Pound, Constantin Kavafis or Fernando Pessoa, novelists from Joyce to Saramago, project their art along two complementary coordinates: the statement of the perennial principles of art and the presentation of the data of the new adventure of the new European spirit by the re-semantisation, rewriting, and re-contextualization of the canonic data of the Latin Middle Ages, of the Renaissance or of the Greek antiquity.

For this reason, the new spirit results mainly from order and duty — the great classic qualities by which the French spirit highly manifests — to which freedom is added. This freedom and this order amalgamate in the new spirit, they characterize it and give it strength. Just as in the case of the poet Fernando Pessoa, the universalism is derived from the propensities of an exacerbated national spirit, which thrives on the phantasms and imperialist utopias Portugal of the navigators and Napoleon France, respectively , with the distinction that, if for the poet of the heteronyms the expression of the universalism had messianic, historic, mystic.

For Apollinaire this is a derivate of the sensitivity and aesthetic tradition rebuilding an imaginary homeland, which mingles the French traditions with the ubiquitous cultural projections, encouraged by the new discoveries of the epoch. For one of them the utopia projects retrospectively, activating the past, for the other the accent falls on the prospective dimension, announcing the dynamic spirit and the potentiality of the future. A future when Europe is not only the dreamt about country, but a cultural-politic, historic reality in whose concretization he involves prophetically and poetically.

Raymond, , , the poetry of the new spirit sets itself in the avant-garde of the culture, and the poets will play 41 RODICA ILIE Contradictory theoretician, Apollinaire is the fervent supporter of the innovation, but he does not forget about the necessity of order, of equilibrium, transtemporal classic desiderata which affiliates to the doctrine of truth, present for a complete definition of the concept of the new spirit.

To complete, by paraphrasing, we can say that there is not one Europe, but several Europes, real or imaginary. Apollinaire subscribes in the Beautiful Red-headed to this Nietzschean theory of truth — as non-falsification, polymorphism, becoming, - and of profundity which removes the accent from the superficial to the interior experience of the dramatic subject, defined at the intersection between sensorial and spiritual, between technique progress and sentimentality infused by the energy of its euphoric holding, at the crossroads between tradition and new, order and adventure, centre and periphery.

Their duty never ends; they have surprised you so far, they will surprise you more from now on, The modern poets are thus creators, inventors and prophets to the highest profit of the community they belong to, they ask us to check what they state. As discoverer, he or she would lay bare the eternally new life as it emerged in the culture. The visions in anamorphosis about Europe appear from the selective taking over of the data of this tradition, and their adequate reading induces a tabular, iconic, polyphonic process. This Europe belonging to Pound will have in its centre another sensitivity than the one where the new spirit is located in the conception of Apollinaire, who used to see order in the French classicism.

If for Ezra Pound the cosmopolite spirit evolved between the borders of the European universe and non-European where English ruled, for Pessoa the cosmopolitism defined less by the plural, heteronymous writing of the diversity taken over as theatre of the human being. Pessoa is a cosmopolite in his own language, Portuguese, and an exiled in English, an European with a double status, both as insider as well as outsider experimenting the life in the colonies, his childhood spent in Africa, but also the experience of the de-personalization and of multiplication in others.

For this reason, every current ideology, affiliated to the contemporary spirit of the European Union, becomes artificial and rigid when applied to literature. The Union became a fact a long time ago by arts, but the motivations were other but the geo-political or diplomatic ones. A reality conditioned to conforming to the respect of diversity, dialogue and multitude of political, moral, sexual, religious options. But, a utopia in what concerns the data of the literature as art of the word. And that because the identity and the specificity, the authenticity and the originality legitimize especially within the framework of a limited sensitivity, modeled at an elementary linguistic level.

Beyond the conservatory vision, taken over by the American poet, one finds the assertion of the same idea of spiritual unity governed and guaranteed by a centre, Christian, even if heretic, by Dante a plural centre, eventually, of the personal gnosis, heterodoxies finding his starting point exactly in The Divine Comedy.

The centre is Europe, a mythological and symbolic Europe of fictions and of the ideals of freedom. But the same Europe is the Europe of wars, of colonies, of Diaspora, and of the political dissidents, of past and present wounds, of conventions, treaties, directives, statistics and reports. An Europe partially imaginary. Thus, Europe becomes the generator of some ethnic, social, religious, political stereotypes, of some thinking schematisms in contradiction to its values occidental liberalism, the topic of personal happiness, of equality, of freedom, or bourgeois prosperity, of secularity.

The excessive Europeanization led, paradoxically, to the loss of the privileges of Europeanism. And this is how begins the adventure of assimilation, of the discipline of the union, of the acknowledgement of the other as partner but not as equal or friend of the intercultural dialogue. Europe is no longer of the nations, but of the European identity, at the most of … identities. As a consequence of the finding of enclavisation, we should ask ourselves if this symbolic construction called the literature of Europe, with a canonic value, still has the strength of becoming sovereign on the current European spirit.

Al Musina, R Bucur. Antoine Compagnon, Jacques Seebacher. Contemporary Narrations: the Internet Folklore. At the same time, they require a redefinition of the folklore because the conveying way is not oral, non-mediated man to man and mouth to ear but written, mediated, through a non-traditional channel Internet that in its turn involves a series of contextual modifications. The group of messages on which I base my analysis was gathered during two years — and contains mostly narrations.

From a typological point of view, they can be integrated in four great categories: jokes, urban legends, rumors and chain messages. Most of the texts are written in Romanian but there are some in other languages, too: English, French. The chosen examples show the vitality of the folklore, contradicting the opinions which supported its disappearance, since the contemporary societies, like the traditional ones are creators and carriers of folklore. The addressee of these messages is a public that has never ceased to tell stories and to trust the power of story to take possession and signify the reality.

In essence though, they are built on the same logic of symbolic nature and resort to the same narrative elements — action schemes, characters, significance systems — that exist within the cultural register shared with both the recipient public and the old narrations. Voir Briggs— Burke , p. En outre, elles ne seraient ni modernes, ni urbaines. Ces contes ne contiennent rien exclusivement urbain.

Maintenant il y en a deux options : 1. Renvoie ce message 2. Voir Kapferer, Tamotsu Shibutani, Improved News. Eretescu , p. Je ne prend pas de risque Chelcea , p. Fais-le maintenant! De la Gutenberg la Internet [Mass-media. Une histoire sociale. Cel mai vechi mijloc de informare din lume [Les rumeurs. Voir Coman , p. For Lucian Blaga and Yves Bonnefoy as well, poetry takes first the appearance of a desiring meditation regarding the time when man was not yet separated from himself and from the world, when Unity was reigning before fragmentation into parts and the multiple should appear.

By privileging nocturnal knowledge instead of conceptual knowledge, they tend altogether — in spite of the ontic dissolution — to restore the originary being lost by the three instances of the hero, the cosmos and the mythical. They reveal the fact that poetic utterance only is able to acquire and recover the nocturnal knowledge: forming together with the myth, the symbol and the rite an essential series, the image provides the mystery of being and possess an actual force of revelatory illumination at Lucian Blaga as well as at Yves Bonnefoy.

Keywords: Poetry, myth, ontology, sacred, cosmos, eros, correspondences, images. Bounoure, Marelles sur le parvis, Paris, Plon, , p. Minerva, Wunenburger, Philosophie des images, Paris, P. Starobinski, op. Chez lui, la 17 18 G. Corti, , p. Gaspar, Approche de la parole, Paris, Gallimard, , p. Riffaterre, Essais de stylistique structurale, Paris, Flammarion, , p.

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