Testament politique (MEMORABLES) (French Edition)

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The deep Wounds, which your Majesty knows better than I, he hath endeavour'd to give me, by his frequent Addresses to your Majesty, to make you suspect my Fidelity, may incline you to believe, That my Resentments are still great enough to prompt me to do by him, as he hath dealt with me. But GOD forbid that I should be more concern'd for my own Interest, than for your Majesty's; having no other aim, but to represent faithfully to your Majesty how things are.

Divine Providence, of whose Effects your Majesty is hourly sensible, hath led you out of those dangerous Ways, wherein another would have been lost: Your Piety, which appears in all your Actions, returns daily Thanks to GOD for it, who is delighted with your Gratitude. We can also say, without flattering your Majesty, That never was any Prince more worthy of that Protection. If through Human Frailty you have done like a David, or many of those Sinners who are now in Paradice; yet you never pretended upon that account, to excuse your self from rendring to GOD that which was due to Him.

This was a sign of the Tenderness of your Conscience, wherein you are so far from being like other Princes, who affect external Mortifications at that very time they are privately plunging themselves into all sorts of Pleasures.

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A Truth equally in the mouths of all your Subjects; and assures me, I cannot be guilty of Flattering you, though your Majesty were less known. Never did any King go so early into the Wars, as you did; if it be said you did not properly go, but were carry'd, because the Condition of your Affairs requir'd you should be seen by your Soldiers on the Frontiers: In answer to this, I only ask, Whether it was not of your own accord, and not by the Counsel of Cardinal Mazarin, that you continu'd whole Days on Horsback; which was the cause of that great Sickness, whereof 'twas thought you would have dy'd at Calais?

What pity is it, that a Prince born with so great Qualities, had not that Education which your Majesty hath given Mon Seigneur the Dauphin? What Miracles had we not then seen in your Reign? Seeing 'tis a wonder if a Prince, who hath not had the help of good Education, doth not heap fault upon fault. You were Educated very tenderly amongst Women; I cannot forbear saying so, because it would rob your Majesty of that Glory which is your due; when it is known, that notwithstanding so ill an Education, you are become that which we now see you are.

That which more particularly obligeth me to tell you my Thoughts, is, That I find my self daily declining; and that according to all appearance, I have but a very little longer time to do you any Service. We see then what it is that gives Beginning to a Kingdom's Prosperity, and what it is continues it: For if he that is the Soveraign doth not know, or is not able to do, what he ought, he must then have a Minister under him. The other Princes of the Blood stood not much better affected. All which proceeded from his Majesty's giving so much Power to his Prime Minister, that the Princes thought it was he that did all, as they had great reason to believe; otherwise the Queen-Mother had not been so abandon'd, as to die at Cologne in such distress, that she had not the one half of what she wanted, to relieve her Necessities.

But without robbing that Prince of any part of his Glory, we may say, That this success was owing to none but God; for had he not taken your Majesty into his Protection, the Enemy might have advanced to the head of a narrow Way, through which the General must have past in their presence. But beside all these Difficulties, there was an apparent danger in giving Battel; for had it been lost, the Enemy might have march'd to the very Gates of Paris.

But 'tis sometimes God's Will, that neither Party shall think of doing that which they should do; and then he leads those step by step, whom he hath resolv'd to protect. The happy success of this Battel of Rocroy, was follow'd with a Joy that was the more sincere, because your Subjects had a tender Love for your Majesty, and the Queen your Mother. The Persecution she had suffer'd, as well as Mary de Medicis, during Cardinal Richelieu 's Ministry, procur'd your Mother a great deal of pity; and as Pity is usually accompany'd with Esteem, the more unhappy she had been, the more People resolv'd to follow her Fortune.

Upon which may be made this very good Reflection, That Princes soon lose the Love of their best Subjects by their ill Government. The King your Father also grew jealous of their [Page 5] Power, which caus'd the Assassination of the Mareschal, and the tragical end of his Wife. However, it was very ill digested; and God be thanked we have not seen your Majesty's Reign stain'd with any thing like it.

A King never doth well to dip his Hands in the Blood of his Subjects: When they deserve Punishment, they ought to be legally prosecuted in a Court of Justice; which perhaps sometimes cannot be safely done, when a Subject becomes so great, that his Master hath just cause to be afraid of him. Henry III. But, except in such cases, a Criminal is to be put into the hands of Justice; not only for the Prince's own sake, but because it is necessary the People should know that the Person is guilty.

Henry IV. The Queen your Mother, SIR, had done well, had she taken example by that which befel Mary de Medicis; she had not then brought the State, as she did, within so near being lost, by the choice she made of Cardinal Mazarin to succeed [Page 6] Cardinal Richelieu. His being a Stranger, made all your Subjects forget the Obedience that was due to their Soveraign. But they fancy'd these Reasons not so good as their own; nor could they be beaten out of their Opinion, That he being born a Subject of the King of Spain, was never to be trusted.

But so People might satisfie their Passion, they car'd not at what Price they did it. That has never been the way to enlarge Empires: The Romans, who boasted themselves Masters of all the World, had more regard for their Allies, than your Minister hath for yours. I know not whether that which I have now said be a Digression; because it hath carried me [Page 9] from my Subject: But I could not find a sitter place for it than here; and the reflexions to be made upon it, are of as great consequence as those I have yet to make, on the choice the Queen your Mother made of Cardinal Mazarin.

To excuse her preferring him before others, three Reasons were given. The Third Reason is much weaker than the other Two; which was, that when in so great a Kingdom as your Majesty's, People of very great Quality and Merit, see the Ministry put into the Hands of a Stranger; Who is he, that hath so ill an Opinion of himself, as to believe he doth not better deserve it, than a Man to whom no body is related?

The following Year, For is it not a strange thing to see with what Haughtiness [Page 14] Monsieur Louvoy treats your Commanders, even from the highest to the lowest; 'tis with so much Pride, that it disgusts all Men of any Courage; and they would certainly desert your Majesty, if their Love for you did not prevail over their Resentments.

I very well know, when he gives your Majesty an Account of things, he very much Mis-represents them: He makes you believe, that unless your Commanders be kept Humble, they will not Obey you, and you shall never be served by them as you ought to be: But he is much in the wrong; For all your Subjects love you so well, that they all blindly obey you. It would be an Insensible Usurpation upon his Authority, and there needed nothing more to plain the way to his Throne.

Your Majesty perhaps doth not know, that to get Preferment, 'tis much better to be his Creature, than to have Merit; so that he hath a greater Court than yours; and all the difference between them is, that to meet with Success in the one, Men must Cringe, and make low Bows; but in the other, it is enough to be a Brave and an Honest Man.

But I can, without deceiving my self, say, that this Policy is none of the best, since the same Fate may befal all Soveraigns; and it were better they would with their Arms punish Rebellion: Then perhaps it would not be so frequent as it is in all Kingdoms. The fruit of your Labours was the taking of Phillipsbourg, and all the places upon the Rhine near it. Your mediation was received by the Northern Crowns, in spite of all the Traverses made by the House of Austria, to render it suspected, and your Ministers finding so great a Progress made towards the ending of their Differences, their Endeavours succeeded so well, that a Peace was concluded.

The Sweeds being delivered from their Troubles, caused by this War; you ordered Vicount Turenne whom you had sent the Year before into Germany, to take upon him the Command of Mareschal Guebrient 's Army, and to act in concert with them; but tho' he was a great Captain, he was defeated at Mariendall, it being impossible for him to avoid it.

Here begun the Campagne of Your Majesty multiplied your Conquests, with adding those of St. Venant, Lilliers, Armentiers and Bethunes. You caus'd the Fort of la Motthe to be demolish'd, out of which the Lorrain Troops were driven with great difficulty, and which served them for a place of Retreat, after committing a thousand Robberies.

Prince Thomas had again signaliz'd the Glory of your Arms in Italy, if he could have kept Vigevane and its Cittadel, which he had taken: But it was impossible for him to resist the great Efforts the Enemy made to retake 'em. The Emperour, on his side, sent so strong an Army to the Rhine, that he re-took all the Places he had lost, Phillipsbourg only excepted. Perhaps it had not been done, if the Duke d' Anguien had been at the Head of your Majesty's Troops; but he was fallen Sick, and return'd to Paris. The Year , was full of great Events; your Majesty took a second time the Fort of Mardyke, which the Enemy had re-taken towards the end of the Campagne; your Majesty likewise took Furnes and Dunquerque, which gave so great an Allarm to all Flanders, that they thought themselves irrecoverably lost.

Vicount Turenne enter'd into the very Heart of Germany, which made the Emperour perceive, it was better to make a Peace, than to hearken to the Spaniards, who endeavoured to perswade him, that your Majesty, during your Minority, was not able to bear the Burden of so many weighty Affairs, you had then upon your Hands. Nevertheless, your Minister engag'd you in an Enterprize, for which he ought never to be forgiven; since it was in no wise to your Majesty's Advantage, and that the publique Interest was less consider'd in it, than his own. The Success which your Arms had at Piombino and Portolongonne, did drowne the Memory of this Loss; but the Joy for that Success was damp'd, by the raising of the Siege of Lerida, wherein Count Harcourt had spent seven Months to no purpose.

The Protection which your Majesty gave to the Barbarines, was so great an Advantage to them; that their Goods which had been seiz'd by the Pope's Order, were restored to them. The Year What a loss had it been for France, and how great a happiness for Spain, if your Sickness had been Mortal, as 'twas feared? The Duke of Bavaria was forced to accept of a Neutrality, as the Duke of Saxony had done some time before; so that the Emperour had at that Instant concluded a Peace, had not the Spaniards disswaded him from it; their Reasons were, the appearance of some Sparks of the Civil-War, which soon after broke out; but the Mischief they wish'd us, [Page 22] fell more upon them, than upon us; and the Revolt which hap'ned at Naples, put them into strange Confusion.

I wish I could pass over in silence the Year Fatal to our Monarchy! What mischief hath Monsieur Louvoy done, to trouble a Harmony so necessary to both Parties? It was very much increas'd by the Victory your Navy had in the Mediterranean, tho' it was much Inferiour to that of the Enemys; for it consisted not of above twenty nine Vessels, when they had Forty Two.

Notwithstanding, this Inequality did not hinder you from sinking Three, and had not Night came on, they had reason to fear the loss of more. You left the City of Paris ingag'd in the Rebellion, and retir'd to St. This punishment ought to have made the Mutineers return to their Duty; but their Boldness equal'd their Disobedience, and after they had stirr'd up other Cities of your Kingdom to take their part, they rely'd on their own Strength to relist your Majesty.

The Parliament did not cease to pursue their Designs, tho' your Majesty had had the Goodness to pardon them; yet they were not altogether so bad as the Parliament of England, who were so wicked as to cut off their King's Head. Your Majesty was never seen to be so angry, as when you heard that News; but the great Affairs wherein you were then engag'd, hinder'd you from punishing so foul a Crime: You had enough to do to oppose the Archduke, who retook Ypres and St.

Maubeuge open'd her Gates to him; so that the Enemy would not have had much cause to brag, if they had not prevail'd in Catalonia. It was Prudence however in your Majesty to conceal your Displeasure for his Affronts; and there was danger in opposing the Prince; because the great Things he had done, had got him much Credit in the Army. The other was to march in Person where it appear'd he had most Friends, and consequently where there was most likelihood of any Commotion. What an excellent thing, SIR, is Prudence! Your Majesty had already been accus'd of not acknowledging the great Services a Subject had done you: Your Minister likewise pass'd for a very ingrateful Person, in the Opinion of the People.

The Voyage you first made into Normandy, and after into Burgundy and Guyenne, pacify'd those Princes, where the Prince's Creatures, supported by the Prince of Conti, and the Duke of Longueville, whom you likewise caused to be Arrested endeavour'd to animate the People against your Majesty. You did not think sit to go your self into Berry, where the Danger did [Page 34] not appear so great; because that Province was shut up in the middle of your Kingdom, and could receive no assistance from the Spaniards, who watch'd an Opportunity to take advantage of so many Accidonts that seem'd favourable to them.

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You sent thither the Count St. How well had your Majesty been pleas'd, could you so easily have setled things in other places, which you had reason to fear could not be done, in the midst of so many Troubles that lay so heavy on you, and under which another must have sunk. He came near the Place, thinking the Memory of his Ancestors would have procur'd him Friends; but every one kept to his Duty; and seeing the Town was well provided, and a brave Man, with a good Garrison, commanded in it, he was oblig'd to turn his Arms another way.

Which are not to be fear'd, when People are under the Government of a Great King, who when any Storm ariseth, can quickly allay it. Champagne, which groan'd under the Tyranny of the Spaniards, who put all to Fire and Sword, took [Page 36] Arms, and augmented the Army of Marquess du Plessis, whom your Majesty had sent to guard that Frontier. He thought with these Succours to have been able to retake Rhetel; and having invested it, the Arch-duke endeavour'd to raise the Siege.

This prov'd of great Advantage to your Majesty, to whom the Defeat of your Army would have been of very dangerous Consequence. Nevertheless, since it was impossible for you any longer to see your Enemies in the heart of your Kingdom, you sent Cardinal Mazarin to the Mareschal; that upon his own knowledge of your Strength, he might give order either to fight or retreat.

The Mareschal du Plessis having rais'd the Siege, march'd directly toward the Enemy, who was now become more numerous by the Duke of Lorrain 's Troops. It was to excite others to follow their Example; for there is nothing more animates your Nobility, than the Honours you bestow on them; and the French are of that Temper, that they will sacrifice a thousand Lives if they had so many in the Service of their King, if he give 'em but a good Word, or the least Preferment.

For Fear without Love degenerates into Distrust; which makes People suspect, that he who ought to be both Father and Master, will turn Tyrant. And this Suspicion is so dangerous, that there is nothing which a King should not do, to keep it out of his Subjects Minds. Beside, the Cardinal design'd to marry one of his Nieces to him, and therefore thought it much better to prefer him than another: Your Majesty was then too young to perceive what prejudice you receiv'd by it, and how dangerous it is for a Minister to prefer his own Interest before his Masters.

Overseer of his Household, who had leave to see him, under pretence of his Mothers Will [Page 40] what endeavours had been us'd to get him out of Prison, own'd the Cardinal's Civility, which he shew'd in coming himself to bring him such good News; yet it was impossible not to suspect all the Protestations he made him of his Friendship, and those humble Submissions he used in desiring the Prince's.

Cardinal Mazarin retir'd to the Elector of Collen, and the Prince came back to Paris, where he was received in Triumph, tho' they had made Bonfires throughout the whole Town when he was Arrested. But such hath always been the Peoples Inconstancy, that no body knows how so to fix 'em, as to secure their esteem; but as soon as a Man steps out of the way, be it to the Right or Left, they presently return to their old Inclination. Which was not warning sufficient to the Prince, to keep him from doing the like.

For he began to despise, and disoblige his Friends. He said as much to your Majesty, and oblig'd his Brother the Duke of Bouillon to make you the same Protestations: This Example teacheth us how dangerous Railery is, and how much it provokes Men of great Courage. The Prince did very ill in another thing; He had assured the Duke of Beaufort, the Dutchess of Cheveruse, and the Coad jutor, that for the future his Interest and theirs should be the same, and that the Prince of Conti should Marry the Dutchess's Daughter. This Promise being made when he was in Prison, was not thought Valid by the Dutchess, because it looked as if it had been forced; she therefore came to the Prince, and releas'd him of it: But he told her, tho' he was not oblig'd, yet because she treated him in so civil a manner, the thing should be done.

The other was against Duels, which you swore on the holy Bible to see exactly executed, that [Page 44] you might never be importun'd concerning it; and resolv'd never to retract what you had sworn. You thought that when once People believ'd your Pardon might be obtain'd by Mediation, those disorders would never cease, to which your Majesty was fully resolv'd to put an end. Beside, you would not let it be said, that Recommendation had a greater Power over you, than Justice. You retir'd a second time from Paris. Maur, you did all you could to cure him of this Suspicion; but because when a Man knows himself guilty, he never thinks himself secure from Punishment; he went into the Country and retir'd to Montrond.

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The Pretence of all these Revolts was, that you would have Cardinal Mazarin return, against your Word given to the contrary. You declar'd him a Rebel, and a Disturber of the publick Peace, with all his Adherents. The strongest Cabal which took part with your Majesty, was that of the Duke of Vendosm and the Coadjutor: But you were necessitated to buy both; which was by giving one the place of [Page 46] Admiral of France; and by promising the other you would nominate him for a Cardinal's Cap, at the next promotion that should happen.

The Duke of Beaufort for a time was one of this Number, notwithstanding all you had done for him and his Family. Your Majesty, who knew not at first in what manner he had escap'd, thought to repair this Blow by a Battel, wherein you hop'd to have the better. Your Majesty was happy, that the Prince had then so great a desire to go to Paris, where he thought this new beam of Glory, would procure him a Reception with some kind of Triumph.

This was a Fault which many great Princes commit, and 'tis a Miracle if they conquer their Passion. The Duke of Orleans, who had wholly declar'd himself against your Majesty, fearing to be run down, sent to his Brother-in-Law the Duke of Lorrain for his Assistance; and the Spaniards, who every Year hir'd his Troops, consented to it. Cloud, by which he thought to avoid a Battel, but your Majesty having laid a Bridge over the Seine, he saw himself ready to be attaqu'd in Front and Rear, he then got under the Walls of Paris, and march'd round it to get to Charenton; Viscount Turenne who observ'd it, follow'd him so close, that he begun to charge his Reer near Port du Temple and Port St.

Martin; which oblig'd him to hasten his March, and being come to the height of the Fauxbourg St. Menehout, he retir'd to Namur. See what unexpected Displeasures Men meet with, when they put themselves into the Service of a Foreign Prince; but 'tis otherwise, when a Man stays in his own Country, where the Place due to his Quality, is not only regulated; but it is also the Sovereign's Interest, to do nothing to the prejudice of a Prince of his Blood. Your Majesty who had found a way to make Cardinal Mazarin return, and to settle Peace in Paris, where you had again fixt the Parliament in its usual Seat.

Menehout to your Obedience. Your Arms in Catalonia began to be dreaded; you took there several strong Places, and you had taken the Town of Gironne, had it not been for a Miracle wrought by Heav'n, in favour of your Enemies: They plac'd on the Rampart a little Cabinet, wherein were the Reliques of a holy Bishop of that City; and presently there appear'd such an infinite number of Flies, which fell upon your Army, that all your Cavalry was astonish'd at it.

This was a great deal for a State which had been so Sick, to be free from Convulsions which had like to have brought it to its Grave: But as in long Sicknesses there are often Relapses, Count Harcourt, whom your Majesty had made use of to reduce the Rebels to their Duty, became one himself. This Relief did Montjeu great Service, who commanded within, and who to spare his Purse, had but an indifferent Garrison: for in those Days, your Majesty, not being able your self to order your own Affairs, the Governors of Places appropriated to themselves the Contributions without rendring any Accompt to your Majesty, with which they undertook to defend the Place wherein they commanded; which was very inconvenient, for instead of maintaining a good Garrison, they thought of nothing but heaping up Treasure; this your Majesty cou'd not remedy; but by changing this Custom, and putting things into the State they are at present.


But the Arch-Duke maintain'd, that they cou'd not go out of their Lines, without quitting some Out-works which they had taken, and if they did not quit 'em, the Garrison would again beat them out of 'em, which was still the same thing; and therefore they were better continue their Attaques, and endeauour to take the Town before Hoquincourt should arrive. This gave Vicount Turenne time, to put his Army into a condition not to be insulted, and to expect the coming of Mareschal Hoquincourt; who as soon as he came, attack'd the Abby of St.

Eloi, and carried it. He lodged there with his Army round about him, and acting in concert with Vicount Turenne who was on the other side of the Lines, they cut off the Enemies Provisions, and [Page 65] hinder'd all Convoys from coming into their Camp. This Enterprize however gave Your Majesty Reputation, tho' the Spaniards endeavour'd in [Page 67] that Country, to make people believe you were a Prince that could not easily get out of that confusion, into which the Civil Wars had cast you; tho' you now scarce feel the effects of it, having put all things into so good order every where; for it is not only on the Frontiers that you have establish'd your power; but you have likewise done it in the heart of your Kingdom, where there remain'd but two things to be done, and which appear'd very pressing and absolutely necessary.

The one was, so to settle again the Power and Authority of your Minister, that he might meet with no more such Strokes as had like to have tumbled him quite down.

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Mareschal Meilleray prepar'd to go thither and besiege it; which made the Cardinal go thence to Bellisle. Indeed, it concerns the Majesty of a great King, not to suffer a Subject to beard him, but to reduce him to his Duty; otherwise it would be an Example to others of dangerous consequence. To redress this, is very difficult; but 'tis absolutely necessary for the good of your Kingdom.

We likewise see, that Monarchical Government is counted the most perfect, and that the best Policy'd Republicks are those, where there is the least Confusion.

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Your Majesty, about this time, was ingag'd in so nice a Business, that you never met with the like, since you ascended the Throne. The Enemy's Army full of Pride for that which had happen'd to you at Cambray, flatter'd themselves, they could give you the like Check before Montmedi. If your Majesty would know, why you met with more ill turns of Fortune in that Country, than in any other; 'tis easie to give your Majesty a Reason for it.

The Spaniards look upon the Milanez of very great Consequence to them, the loss of which, would certainly draw after it [Page 83] other Places they possess in that Country; so that whenever they are attack'd, they use all imaginable means to relieve them: Beside, the Princes of Italy do not ordinarily Pray for you, when your Armies come amongst 'em: They are very well pleas'd with your Protection, but do not care for your Neighbourhood.

It is enough for your Majesty to have a Door open to help 'em in time of need, and if you suffer no body, especially Spain, to meddle with 'em, you shall still be in great Reputation among 'em: All then, which I think you ought to do in that Country, is to continue the Allyance which you have with the Duke of Savoy; with whom, a good Correspondence is not only necessary for the keeping of Cazall; but likewise of Pignerol: That of other Princes is of no use to you, but may prove prejudicial, by making others believe, you have great Designs upon their Liberty; and therefore may put them upon entring into a Confederacy against you.

But your Majesty must take heed, the Italian Princes do not serve for Trumpets to other Potentates, who are Jealous enough of your Majesty, and would readily joyn to interrupt your Prosperity. I know very well, that when a Prince resolves to make War, he ought not only to think, by what means he may succeed; but also, what is like to be the Sequel and End of it. You commanded, that they should be shut up in the Hospital General; your Edict concerning it, made the Deaf to hear, the Dumb to speak, and the Lame to walk; this Law wrought more Miracles, than ever were seen done at one time under the Gospel; it was an intolerable Abuse, to see so many Idle People lying in all Passages upon Bundles of Straw, with Limbs, to appearance, Distorted and out of Joynt, to move Compassion; yet, when they were to be shut up, were all Sound and Streight, and could work as well as others.

Great was the Grief of your Court and Army, every one was in such a Consternation as cannot be exprest; you only appear'd every Day the same, endeavouring to Comfort the Queen your Mother, and the Cardinal, who stood despairing at your Bed's side. Your Majesty's Youth contributed very much to it, as it doth in all kinds of Diseases, you so perfectly recover'd your Health, that a Month after, it could not be perceiv'd that you had been Sick. Your Majesty went to Lions to see her, and conclude the Business. But the Spaniards, foreseeing that if this happen'd, all Flanders would fall under your Majesty's Power, and after that you would force them to restore Navarre, which [Page 89] they ujustly kept from you, they sent Pimentel to Lions, with Power to break this Marriage, and propose that of the Infanta.

Your Majesty acquainted the young Princess with this Proposal, and withal told her, that the Inclination you had for her, made you less sensible of this News, than you should have been at another time. But these Words, how sincere soever they were, not being able to comfort her, she return'd to Turin, very much afflicted for missing such a Fortune. The greatest part of your [Page 90] Conquests you still kept by this Treaty; but you were to restore all Lorrain, excepting only a High-Way, which was to remain to you in Soveraignty, to go into Alsatia; and the Dutchy of Bar; which was still to continue under your Majesty's Subjection.

BEfore your Majesty came back to Paris, you stay'd a while at Fountainbleau, to give the Inhabitants of that great City, time to prepare for your Reception. The Entry they made for you, was so Stately and Magnificent, that in the Memory of Man, never was any thing seen like it: Your Majesty stopp'd, when you came into the Suburb of St. Two Things made him say this Good of me to your Majesty; the one was, The Abuses which were really committed by those who manag'd your Revenue. The other was, The good Order into which I had brought his own Affairs, which he had trusted to my Care.

Finances, with whom he had some Words a few Days before, and who was a very proud Man, because he had been the Parliaments Attorney General. The other was, because the Cardinal saw himself on the Bri [ Whatever it were, it was your Majesty's Pleasure to have some private Conference with me, wherein I was so Happy, to give your Majesty Satisfaction: Your Majesty then commanded me to draw you up some large Memoirs of that, wherewith I had the Honour to entertain you; which I did the next Day, and with which your Majesty seem'd very well pleas'd.

I have lately in my own Case, put this Rule in practice; for a very good Match being offer'd to me for my eldest Son, it did not move, or at all tempt me, because it consisted not with your Majesty's Service. The Cardinal now expected his Niece should be Dutchess of Lorrain, either by being marry'd to the Duke himself, or to his Nephew Prince Charles: But the Duke, who glory'd in never performing any thing he promis'd, and having obtain'd all that he could desire, disclaims what was promis'd by the Duke of Guise, which was, that he should Marry the Cardinal's Niece presently after the Signing of the Treaty.

It may, perhaps, be thought Strange, that this Cardinal, who was so very cunning, did not cause the Treaty to be ratify'd by the Duke of Lorrain, before the performance of that which the Duke of Guise promis'd in his behalf. Joly, Curate of St. He had run a Risque of dying, without being absolv'd, if your Majesty had not had the Goodness to make a Gift to him of all he had [Page 96] taken from you. Your Majesty, that very Night, came into your Closet; where you ask'd me, whether the Cardinal had not hid some Effects, and the Place where I thought they might be: I told your Majesty all I knew, and you seis'd upon what was of great value; but yet left a great deal to his Niece Hortensia, whom he made his Heir, upon Condition, that her Husband should bear the Name and Arms of Mazarin, which gave great distast to all the Princes of the Blood; but your Majesty, who was alway very kind to him, continued it after his Death; for you would let no body touch any thing of that which he left to his Niece.

It was not long e're all your Subjects were of my Opinion; especially when they saw you knew so well how to Act the King. Every one hath his Eyes upon 'em to give them their due, according to their Actions, whether Good or Bad. This Niece, fomented your Passion cunningly enough; and every day, more and more to enflame you, us'd those Arts, which crafty Women practise, who are proud of their Conquests.

Many believ'd, that she had great Hopes, that the Fire which had been so quick and ardent, would be easily rekindled: She was therefore returning to Court, with full Sailes; but your Majesty, having Notice of it, sent a Courrier to tell her, she must retire into a Monastery. Mademoiselle, who had willingly hearkend to the Proposal that had been made her of the Duke d' Anguien, who was then but a Boy; was much more pleas'd with this of a Handsom Prince, and of an Age more suitable to hers. She grew so much in Love with him, that she became jealous of her Sister, whom the Prince of Lorrain could have better lik'd, had she not been design'd by your Majesty for another; you had indeed promis'd her to the Duke of Tuscany, eldest Son to the Duke of Florence; who not long after Marryed her.

She, and the Prince of Lorrain, tho' both [Page ] knew they were not born for one another, could not refrain from being often together; and the Prince, growing daily more and more enamour'd of her, gave her a Picture which he had from Mademoiselle Montpensier. The Vanity which all Women have to boast of their Conquests, especially when they think they can vex a Rival, made her discover what the Prince had given her, tho' it concern'd her very much, to have kept the thing secret.

Your Majesty did not like it, and she being to go so speedily into Italy to be married, it was not fit her Husband should suspect her guilty of any amorous Intriegue; but all those Reflections did not hinder her from making this false step. So true is it, that Youth, Prudence, and Love, very seldom keep Company. Mademoiselle Montpensier no sooner knew this, but she broke with Prince Charles; his Father, who was extreamly troubled that his Son should miss in all respects so considerable a Match, did what he could to bring the Business about again; but Mademoiselle, whose high Spirit, was answerable to the greatness of her Birth, despis'd all the Promises which were made to appease her.

Your Majesty would not force her, tho' you thought this Marriage necessary for the good of your State. This Declaration was like a Clap of Thunder to him, and believing it was impossible to prevail with your Majesty to [Page ] altar your Resolution; he offer'd to declare you Heir to all his Dominions, if you would grant him the Honour of your Protection against his Nephew. That of which I am now speaking, was of this Nature, and it were to be wish'd, your Majesty had seriously consider'd it: You would then have seen, that this was only a Bait thrown out, the better to deceive you, and also that this Treaty contain'd some things in it, which render'd the Execution of it impossible, as I shall hereafter plainly shew your Majesty.

To that [Page ] purpose, he had bought Belle Isle of the Family of de Rets, where he intended to stand upon his Guard against your Majesty, having by Pensions, made several Governours of Provinces, and Frontier Places, of his Party; of which a Draught was found amongst his Papers, when he was seiz'd; so that if Justice had been done upon him, he should have been brought to a Scaffold.

The Place which he had in Parliament, made your Majesty think it dangerous to prosecute him, till he had quitted it. Fouquet ran into the Trap, and having sold his Place to one of his Friends, you went into Britany, and there had him arrested. At the same time you seiz'd upon Belle Isle: The thing was executed in the same manner your projected it, and having appointed Commissioners to try him, you caus'd him to be prosecuted.

That of a Chief Judge, was not less worth. That of a Master of Requests, was valued at a Hundred and ten thousand Crowns. A Consequence so dangerous obligeth a Prince to keep his Word; but yet he ought not to let his Farmers get so excessively, as to ruine his People and himself too: for 'tis manifest, if he doth not manage his Affairs like a good Father of a Family, he will be oblig'd to lay Tax upon Tax.

After these Remarks, I return to what I just touch'd upon before, when I said, there was great difference, between what a Prince doth himself, and that which during his Minority is done by his Minister; for if his Minister hath mismanag'd, and not taken care of his Affairs, he is not bound to approve of those Faults he committed; for a Prince ought not to be in a worse Condition than a Private Man, who can help himself against that which his Guardian hath done prejudicial to his Interest.

His influence upon French literature was considerable and lasting. Hardly less important was his rebuilding of the Sorbonne and his endowments there. When he died, 4th of December , he was buried in the chapel of the Sorbonne, which still stands as he built it. His tomb, erected in , though rifled at the Revolution, still exists. Many writings are attributed to Richelieu, althoughfowing to his habit of working with substitutes and assistants it is difficult to settle how much of what passes under his name is authentic.

See G. Hanotaux, Cardinal Richelieu , one volume of the four then promised, an exhaustive history of the period down to ; and G. Michaud and J. Poujoulat's collections. Perkins in Heroes of the Nations series, Apart from his reputation as a man of exceptionally loose morals, he attained, in spite of a.

Charles V of France - Wikipedia

As ambassador to Vienna he settled in the preliminaries of peace; in he served in the Rhine campaign. He fought with distinction at Dettingen and Fontenoy, where he directed the grapeshot upon the English columns, and three years afterwards he made a brilliant defence of Genoa; in he expelled the English from Minorca by the capture of the San Felipe fortress; and in he closed his military career by those pillaging campaigns in Hanover which procured him the sobriquet of Petit Pere de la Maraude.

The host of events leading to Henri's ascension to the French throne in proved a daunting challenge for any historian focused on contemporary events. Many of them had not supported Henri or the politique cause prior to or shortly thereafter. Some had even taken part in the Catholic League, which supported the Cardinal de Bourbon, or a member of the Guise family or even the Spanish royal family over Henri, who was considered an abject heretic, and therefore not eligible for the throne. His sanguine temperament fostered a relatively tolerant environment at court, which was remarkable, given the attempted assassinations, insurrections, and other adversities that Henri faced before and during his reign from Yet one historian, the most renown of the group, Jacques-Auguste de Thou, was denied royal support after the Catholic church criticized aspects of his major work, Histoire Universelle, and eventually placed it on the Index.

Henri, who could ill-afford to offend the papacy at the time that de Thou was composing his history, demanded that the sale of the book be prohibited. The king's annoyance with an historian was a rare occurrence, but one which characterized the uncertainties of the time as well as the problems that historians of contemporary history faced. If they walked a tightrope, it only reflected Henri's tenuous position with various factions and parties in France and abroad. In this rare case, political and religious consensus took precedence over relative tolerance involving freedom of expression at court.

Of course, all of the politique historians eagerly exalted Henri's role in history, which became part of his gallant legend for posterity. But they did not neglect pleading the case for truth, clarity and objectivity in their writing.