La Revolucion de las Chirimoyas (Spanish Edition)

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Self-liberation and cultural retention were synonymous with the formation of Maroon societies — known as quilombos in Brazil, palenques in Colombia and Cuba, and cumbes in Venezuela — created by Africans who escaped into forests, hills, and bush areas of the Caribbean and South America. Once isolated, they formed their own communities, where many African culinary and other cultural patterns could be preserved.

Maroon communities, however, were not the only societies dominated by African traditions. The continual influx and steady increase of Africans into the Caribbean and South America constantly rejuvenated African cultures, a persistent African cultural input, and a culinary revolution under the influence of Africans that would permeate every aspect of cooking and cuisine in rural and urban areas of every country in the Americas.

One region that became home to African cuisine and culture was the Caribbean, including economically and culturally the South American countries of Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. Mexicans of identifiable African descent are estimated at , to , persons, many of whom are farmers clinging to their ancestral roots and who live in Mexican towns such as Cuajiniculapa formerly called "Little Africa" , located in the southwest corner of the state of Guerrero. Popular African-Mexican foods include mondongo pig intestines , or chitlins in English.

Many of these farm communities grow sesame seeds, beans, corn, and hot peppers, and they stew chicken with bananas, prunes, tomatoes, and chicha corn liquor. Mexico's neighbor, Belize, is home to the Garifuna, the descendants of the Black Caribs, a Maroon society on the island of St. Before the Black Caribs' conquest by the British and their subsequent exile in from St.

Vincent to Trujillo, Belize, and Roatan Island, off the coast of Honduras, their fishing and agricultural techniques produced an array of traditional dishes. Still served by the Garifuna are boiline , a stew combining fruits and vegetables with fish and dumplings; hudut also known as fufu in Africa and Jamaica , small cakes formed from boiled and mashed plantains, then wrapped in banana leaves and steamed or roasted; tapau , consisting of fish and green bananas in coconut milk; and various chicken dishes and bimekakule , or puddings.

The achiote seed is not only the source of red gusewe dye, produced by the Garifuna, but is also ground to make achiote paste for recado , an ingredient still added to stewed pork dishes. Breads include areba , or cassava bread, an important food symbol and indispensable item for the ritual dugu; and bachati , a fried bread consumed at the morning meal. The Caribbean also provides the Garifuna with lobster and conch, which is turned into ceviche and conch fritters. Seafood is steamed and barbecued, and when stewed with okra, pigeon peas, tomatoes, and hot peppers, it takes on the characteristics of gumbo.

When seafood is not on the menu, pickled pig's tail and baking powder "biscuits" are the favorites. Coconut bread made with refined wheat flour and yeast is prominent in everyday meals. Beans and rice are also stewed together with the key flavor ingredient, coconut milk. These dishes are part of the standard repertoire at mealtime and consumed during religions celebrations and feasts for the deceased.

As of the late s, nearly , descendants lived in towns and villages in Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Guatemala along a narrow coastal strip facing the Caribbean Sea. Residents along this strip know that there is no shortage of libations, alcoholic and spirit-free, in the Caribbean's collection. One is ginger beer, made with fresh ginger boiled with cinnamon and cloves, then sweetened. A similar recipe produces mauby, which makes use of mauby bark, or tree bark, and is consumed as part of numerous social rituals. In addition, the tamarind fruit, indigenous to East Africa and grown in many areas of the Caribbean, is offered on many celebratory occasions in the form of the tamarind drink.

Puerto Rico 's coquito , a complex combination of eggs, rum, sweetened condensed milk, coconut, and spices, and Trinidad's peanut punch, which blends peanut butter with vanilla extract, eggs, milk, and rum, are tropical cocktails. In Nevis corn is also turned into mealtime staples along with pigeon peas, yams, sweet potatoes, cassava, bananas, and fruits from citrus trees.

Highland garden farming and agriculture in St. Kitts is said to be a throwback to plantation days, when mountain plots were allocated for slave farming. As these plots are still estate owned, many villagers view highland farming with disdain. Private gardens in St. Kitts, however, typically produce pumpkins, potatoes, eggplant, beans, peppers, mangos, bananas, pineapples, coconut, citrus fruit, and breadfruit.

Chickens and pigs are commonly kept and turned into such dishes as chicken cooked with pineapple, the sauce thickened with arrowroot, a popular cooking starch known to have medicinal properties and a high-volume export from St. Vincent; and pigs' feet with lime juice and onions. Kitts, as was the Charlestown areas of Nevis. Seafood dishes, including mussel pie, conch stew, and shark hash, as well as cassava pie, black-eyed peas and rice, and a chicken- and pork-filled baked pastry made from shredded cassava, to name just a few dishes, share the bill of fare during festival cricket in Bermuda.

Like Carnival, celebrated in major cities in the Americas, and for which long periods of preparation are the tradition, festival cricket is said to be the time of "eating and drinking everything in Bermuda. A poetic culinary metaphor has been used to describe Cuban and Puerto Rican nationalist identity, just as the African dishes gumbo and jambalaya have been used to define many aspects of culture in Louisiana.

Ajiaco , or sancocho , is a stew made up of spices, meats, and tubers from Africa and the Caribbean. Hot peppers, yams, calalu — a type of spinach used in cooking and a staple West Indian soup throughout the Caribbean — cassava, rum, plantains, and pumpkin are some of the ingredients blended into this savory stew. Throughout Cuba's history the descendants of Africans have maintained distinct culinary traditions by way of soups, stews, and other meat dishes. Sopa de pollo chicken soup and picadillo , or beef simmered with orange annatto oil — a substitute for Africa's orange palm oil — are two such dishes still eaten today.

During the era of slavery African domestics enriched the diets of planters in Cuba and became indispensable culinary artisans. Many African cooks in bondage in the French colonized islands were reported to be male; however, in Cuba, black male cooks were famous as well. Although black Cubans were excluded from baking and pastry-making trades in the s, they nevertheless continued their African tradition of bean cakes, meal dumplings, yam fritters, and tea buns, all of which were side dishes, as well as breads and desserts, baked or fried in hot oil.

Bunuelos de viento are deep-fried dumplings drizzled with a sweet syrup and served as dessert in Cuba, the Dominican Republic , and Puerto Rico. Tembleque , made with coconut milk, sugar, and arrowroot or cornstarch for thickening, is a popular coconut custard for African Antilleans in the Puerto Rican coastal towns of Maunabo, Patillas, Arroyo, and Guayama in the southeast. Tembleque and flan de pina , made with pineapple juice, eggs, rum, and liqueur or sherry, are both custard desserts seen on holiday and party tables in Puerto Rico, along with lechon asado roast pig ; mofongo , a spicy, garlic-flavored ground plantain side dish; and chicharrones pork cracklings and tostones de plantano verde deep-fried plantains for appetizers and snacks.

Follow-up courses include mannish water, a traditional Jamaican soup consisting of goat's head and feet, pumpkin and plantain, potatoes, hot peppers, and spinners — which are small dumplings cooked in the hot broth; and fish tea, a seafood stew with a savory broth made from fish heads.

Main meals include curried goat and jerk pork and chicken — the jerk process requires marinating meats in spices and hot peppers, then grilling or roasting over a fire made of aromatic leaves and branches. All of these dishes are part of a contemporary repertoire of African creations brought to Jamaican towns and rural areas and to iron-manufacturing communities in the eighteenth century, such as that of John Reeder's Foundry in Morant Bay.

Culinary creations produced in Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Haiti were also expressions of African cultural retentions. Haiti, the premier French-colonized island and the jewel of the Caribbean in the eighteenth century, catapulted French culinary society and economy to unparalleled heights by way of its slave labor in the kitchen. However, slave laborers in Saint Domingue Haiti and elsewhere were often underfed, and as with a number of slave societies in the Americas, bondsmen and -women had to cultivate a small piece of land for their own dietary upkeep.

Giraumon soup and griot are samples of the fare prepared by Haitian cooks. Pumpkin is referred to as giraumon in the former French-colonized islands. In giraumon soup, pumpkin is seasoned with nutmeg, spices, and salt beef. Other favorites include okra rice and fish or chicken braised in coconut milk and peanut sauce. A popular Peruvian saying states that "El que no tiene de inca, tiene de mandinga" "whoever does not have Incan ancestry has African ancestry". The same statement, regarding African ancestry, is true for many of South America's thirteen countries.

Black communities emerged in all South American countries as a result of the slave trade, marronage, and immigration. Black populations are said to range from less than 1 percent to as high as 30 percent in Colombia and between 50 and 75 percent in Brazil. Present throughout the societies is the African contribution to cuisine.

One of Africa's culinary legacies in the Santiago, Rancagua, Maule, and Aconcagua regions of Chile is bean soups — and there are numerous versions throughout South America — made with hot peppers, one to three kinds of peas or beans, and tomatoes and onions; sopa de pescado fish soup , made with a hearty fish stock, shellfish, and vegetables; and a version of humitas Chilean tamales , which are fresh corn husks stuffed with grated corn and chopped onions.

They drink yinya bie and mabi , drinks that originated in Trinidad. As in Bolivia, arracacha is consumed; the leaves are used in the same way as celery in raw or cooked salads. Venezuelans refer to it as "Creole celery. However, every segment and enclave of Brazilian society, including its quilombos Maroon communities , were influenced by, or had as its base, African cuisine and culture. Its residents were settled cultivators, producing maize, fruits, and all sorts of cereal and vegetables crops, which they stored in granaries against harsh weather and attack.

They also supplemented their food supply with domesticated animals, fishing, and hunting. But those same customs and practices of African culinary culture that fed and gave security and continuity to the inhabitants of the ten major quilombos in Brazil permeated Brazilian cuisine in general. Feijoada , a rich combination of beans, blood sausages, and different cuts of pork or beef; caruru , prepared with leafy greens and smoked fish and dried shrimp, hot peppers, okra, and peanuts; acaraje , a bean flour and dried shrimp fritter; as well as coconut sauces and soups to complement a variety of seafood delicacies are only a few of the African dishes brought to Brazil.

In Brazil and throughout African America, as Richard Price points out, "[C]ooking and eating were core areas of cultural resistance and persistence, as well as foci of ongoing creativity and dynamism" , p. Much culinary and cultural resistance can still be observed in Suriname, formerly colonized by Holland; French Guiana , an "Overseas Department" of France, and thus considered an integral part of the French nation; and Guyana, formerly colonized by the British.

All three countries sit side by side in the northeast corner of South America, bordering northern Brazil. People of African descent residing in Guyana prepare a multitude of fish dishes from bounty available all along the seacoast, such as double-belly basham, eyewater, red snapper, kingfish, patwa rock fish, and many others; as well as from rivers and canals providing shrimp, crab, clam, and mussels. Rice, yams, various tubers, mangos, coconuts, the oil palm, and other fruits are used in such dishes as pumpkin stewed with rice. Wedged between Guyana and Guiana is Suriname, the location of what are believed to be the best preserved African cultural patterns in the Western Hemisphere.

Suriname is home to the descendants of the Saramaka Saramacca, or Saramaccaners , who live along the banks of the Suriname River, and the Djuka Maroons they prefer the term Aucans or Aucanners , communities formed in the early eighteenth century. Referring to themselves as "river" and "bush" people — there are other "bush" groups, such as the Matuari or Matawai , Paramacca, and Boni — these Maroon descendants can be found in villages from a few miles south of the Atlantic Ocean down to the Brazilian border.

The ancestors of the Saramaka were agricultural specialists who already had a unique horticultural calendar set up by the mid-eighteenth century. Early Saramakans cultivated the same enormous array of crops their descendants produce today. One such crop is rice. Known as alesi , the seventy cultivated varieties comprise much of their current diet, although wild rice is grown today only for use in rituals to honor their eighteenth-century ancestors.

Rice processing is carried out using African utensils and methods and the process is nearly identical to that of South Carolina plantation blacks during slavery. A mere sample of the game meat, fish, and birds, preserved primarily by smoking and salting, includes akusuwe , a kind of rabbit; mbata , a small deer; malole , which is armadillo; and awali , or opossum, eaten only when nothing else is available to accompany rice.

Rounding out their larder is the tree porcupine, known as adjindja , in addition to logoso turtle , akomu eel , peenya piranha , and nyumaa , or pataka , spoken of as "the best fish in the country. Large quantities of meat and fish are shared through family networks, lessening the need for preservation. Fifteen varieties of okra are cultivated, along with mboa and bokolele mboa is amaranth, but both are called wild spinach.

Tonka beans , seven varieties of yams, tania, cashews and peanuts, and wild limes, watermelon, lemons, oranges, and pineapples, and other fruits of African origin are also grown. From the fifteenth through the nineteenth centuries, Africans, as slaves, contributed their labor skills, religion, music, and culinary expertise to create societies and cultures in every country in the Americas.

The reinvention of culinary traditions and social patterns based on African heritage demonstrated strong cultural persistence and resistance within plantation, and especially Maroon, communities, which were established wherever slavery existed. Similarities in African culinary heritage, shared throughout Latin America and the Caribbean, have left enduring legacies.

Those legacies are filled with cooking and cuisine strongly reminiscent of, or identical to, those of their African forebears and therefore continue to transmit the values and enrich the culinary experiences of not only Africans in the Americas but most other cultures in the Americas as well. Although these nations have adopted African culinary traditions as their own, in most cases there is little or no recognition of their roots.

Too often seen as backward and lacking in value, the African contribution is regularly subjected to racism and societal repression. For Africans and their descendants in the Americas, food and its preparation are deeply infused with social and cultural meaning rooted in African traditions and have always held an intrinsic role in creating, preserving, and transmitting expressions of ethnic cohesion and continuity.

It is hoped that there will be an eventual appreciation of African culinary heritage not just in Latin America and the Caribbean but throughout the world. See also Africanisms ; Food and Cuisine, U. Bastide, Roger. African Civilisations in the New World. New York : Harper, Cools-Lartigue, Yolande. The Art of Caribbean Cooking. Richmond, B. Counter, S. Allen, and David L. Cambridge, Mass. Gonzalez, Nancie L. Sojourners of the Caribbean. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, Buen Provecho: Years of Hispanic Cuisine.

Basking Ridge, N. Irwin, Graham W. New York : Columbia University Press, Manning, Frank E. Whitten Jr. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, Moore, Carlos, Tanya R. Saunders, and Shawna Moore, eds. African Presence in the Americas. Trenton, N. Mutunhu, Tendai. Price, Richard. Berlin and P.

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London: Frank Cass, Rahier, Jean. Okpewho, C. They also increased unemployment, poverty and labour instability. The Asian Financial Crisis and the Brazilian Crisis precipitated the escape of capitals, opening the path to the biggest economic recession in the Argentinean history that ended up lasting four years.

In , due to the massive escape of capitals, the government disposed the freezing of bank accounts provoking a generalised social crisis which led to the resignation of the president on December 20, During his presidency some companies previously privatised were nationalised and a considerable increase of the GDP was registered together with a decrease of unemployment, due partially to the creation of new working positions in the reactivated agroindustrial sector, the industrial sector and the building industry and progressively reducing the benefits and social plans created back in Government The Argentine Constitution of established a republican, federal and representative system of government, which has been kept undisturbed through all the constitutional reforms made since then.

The Legislative power is vested by the National Congress of Argentina, consisting of two chambers. The members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected taking as an only district each province and the Autonomous city of Buenos Aires, where the citizens vote for one list among all the candidates of each political party or electoral alliance, to occupy the seats that each district presents for that election- in it had a total of members-. The Senate gathers representatives of the 23 provinces and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, having each of them two senators by majority and one by minority, adding up to a total of 72 members.

They are elected through direct vote, serving six-year terms with one-third standing for reelection every two years. The Executive is carried out by a citizen holding the title of President of the Argentine Nation, elected through direct vote on a second round together with the vicepresident candidate.

The Judiciary is headed by a Supreme Court of Justice consisting of five lawyer-judges appointed by the President in consultation with the Senate, requiring a majority of two-thirds. The lower courts, known as federal courts, are in charge of resolving conflicts regulated by the federal legislation in all the country and by the regular legislation in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, where they receive the name of national courts. The designation and direct control of the judges corresponds to the Council of Magistrates of the Nation, a multisectorial body.

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Concerning the provincial governments, Argentina is divided into 23 provinces. Because of the federal system adopted by the National Constitution, the provinces are autonomous and maintain all the power not delegating it explicitly to the federal government. All the provinces have a republican and representative Constitution, which organises its own executive, legislative and judiciary branches and regulates the system of municipal autonomy. The provinces can sanction laws about not delegated matters, being the ordinary and main laws civil, commercial, penal, labour, of social security and mining reserved for the National Congress National Constitution, article 75, clause In all the provinces the Executive is headed by a Governor who is appointed in this position for four years and can be reelected.

The legislative in some provinces is carried out through a single-chamber legislature and through a two-chamber system in others. All the provinces have their own judiciary system with their corresponding Provincial Supreme Court, as well as courts in charge of resolving conflicts regulated by the ordinary law civil, penal, commercial, labour, local administrative. Political and Administrative Organisation Territorially, Argentina is organised into 23 provinces and the autonomous city of Buenos Aires, where the headquarters of the federal government is located. Geography The territory of the Argentine Republic is the second largest territory in South America and the eight in extension in the whole planet.

From this number 2. The rest is formed by the The Argentinean relief is divided into two main units: the Andes and the Mature Mountain Range, which extend from north to south and constitute the western boundary of the country and the Plain, located to the east of this mountain range. The Andes are divided by the north into two branches which frame a zone of high plains, the puna. The rest of the country is formed by vast regions of low lands that can be classified into four zones: the Chaco, Mesopotamia, the Pampa and the Patagonia. It is a very humid zone, with a great number of marshes and swamps.

The most southern region is that of the Patagonia, a vast region of high plains alternated with depressions and basins. Because of longitudinal and elevation amplitudes, Argentina is subject to a variety of climates. As a rule, the climate is predominantly temperate with extremes ranging from subtropical in the north to subpolar in the far south. The north of the country is characterised by very hot and humid summers with mild drier winters, being subject to periodic droughts.

Central Argentina has hot summers with thunderstorms hail is produced in the western zone and cool winters. The southern regions have warm summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall, especially in mountainous zones. Higher elevations at all latitudes experience cooler conditions with an arid climate. The production of agricultural products is traditionally one of the assets of the Argentinean economy.

Soy is Argentina's main product for export, followed in importance by the corn and the wheat, among the cereals. The products originated from the cattle farming —dairy products, beef, leather and wool- supply the national market and are also a revenue source for the export sector. Additionally, the production of fruits and vegetables is of certain importance and has main productive centres in: the Patagonia valleys dedicated to apples and pears; the northwest regions, producers of sugar, citrus and tobacco in this region the cattle farming is beginning to stand out, sector which was replaced by the imposition of soy and other commodities in the humid pampas ; the Mesopotamia, also a producer of citrus; Cuyo, where the agro industrial production of olives, grapes and wine, which stands out, being Argentina the main producer of wine in Latin America and the fifth in the world, producing 16million hectolitre a year.

The country has a great variety of mineral reserves —mainly petroleum, coal and diverse metals-. In the last decades, the production of petroleum and coal has been significantly incremented. The mining resources are located in the provinces close to mountain ranges, along 4. However, due to the population crisis of the hake caused by undiscriminating fishing in , the production has been low.

On the contrary, forestry production, mainly pines and eucalyptus, has expanded concentrating in the provinces of the Mesopotamia. Other important industrial sectors are: textile, shoe industry, food industry, chemical, pulp and paper industry, wood industry and cement industry.

In the particular case of the food industry, in the last years, agroindustrial type economies have been developed in several provinces, through the creation of food processing and packaging industries, mainly of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, wine and meat. Buenos Aires is still the most important industrial area of the country, where the main portion of the manufacturing activity is concentrated. Culture Argentina is a highly multicultural country, characterised by large and diverse migratory flows coming from all the continent, with an intense miscegenation among them.

Argentina has an important cultural centre, with endless number of museums and art galleries, as well as a vigorous threatical community. Two typical musical genres coexist in the country, representing two different regions. The tango is more representative of Buenos Aires than of the rest of the country and has become a musical symbol of the argentineans abroad. Nowadays is kind of a cult music that has faithful followers though not being often listened to by the majority of the people.

The folklore is more representative of the rural area. The capital city of Argentina is characterised by the presentation of shows and internationally renowned artists. In terms of music, the tango stands up as a musical style and a dance internationally spread and born in the slums of Buenos Aires, strongly connected to both Argentina and Uruguay.

The Cuisine of the Caribbean

The argentinian folklore is another musical style that joins together artistic manifestations of the rural region of Argentina. It is the largest country in South America and the fifth in the world. It shares frontiers with almost all the southamerican countries except with Chile and Ecuador.

History The independence of Brazil was proclaimed on September 7, by the son of the king of Portugal Pedro I, who established a constitutional monarchy with an economy based on slave work. During this century, slave labour force was gradually replaced by European immigrants, mainly germans and italians. The jump into modernisation continues with the abolition of slavery May 13, , essential fact for the period, and of the monarchy November 15, The Republic which was proclaimed was dominated by oligarchies of rural origin and stayed in the power through corrupted elections.

It was known as the Old Republic and lasted up to In a new Constitution is approved and Vargas is replaced by a president elected through suffrage. The most democratic period of Brazil up to the moment begins. The country was shattered by the suicide of Vargas in , who has been democratically elected president in -Vargas got to be president in four opportunities , , y -. On March, , the power fell on a military board, where five generals indirectly elected succeeded, beginning in this way the de Facto period. In , a massive popular mobilisation for he democratic elections swoop the country.

In Tancredo Neves, the opposition candidate of the Brazilian Democratic Movement MDB won the indirect presidential elections against the civilian candidate supported by the military authorities, Paulo Maluf. Tancredo was the first civilian president to be elected in 21 years. Dramatically, Tancredo died just before he could assume office. Under Sarney's presidency, in , a Constituent Assembly was called, approving the democratic Constitution of The presidential system of government was confirmed by the people through a plebiscite on April 21, in which the proposals of a parliamentary republic and a constitutional monarchy were rejected.

Fernando Collor de Mello won the direct presidential elections of , being the first democratically elected president in 29 years. During his second year of government a series of corruption scandals lead the Congress to start a period of distrust against Collor. The president decided to resign just before getting to be judged by the Congress. His vicepresident, Itamar Franco, assumed the presidency. Fernando Henrique repeats the same situation in when he is reelected as president for four years more.

During , the country progresses in the field of privatisations, the control over the inflation rate and the government expenditures. However, it did not improve the distribution of the revenue or get to significant rates of economical development. For this reason the agreements signed with the IMF have characterised this government as neoliberal. In spite of his promises, he has maintained the controversial economic policy of the former government and a good relationship with the IMF.

In the third year of his government a corruption scandal affected his political party, the Workers Party, that caused him to lose popularity. However, he was reelected in the elections, beating Geraldo Alckmin. Government Brazil is a federal republic as established by its current Constitution, promulgated on October The federal states have their own governments, with their own fields of activities and duties. The Constitution of , regulates the election of the chief of government and of the chief of state, the president, that is elected through a direct way for a four-year renewable period.

In the brazilian citizens voted in favour of keeping the republican and presidentialist system of government the chief of government and of state are the same individual The bicameral brazilian National Congress consists of a Federal Senate with 81 members three representatives for each state and three for the Federal District , elected for a eight-year period and of a Chamber of Deputies with members elected for a four-year period.

The deputies are assigned to each state according to its the population members elected for a period of four years. The election is carried out through a secret vote and it is compulsory for the literate citizens over Each chamber has permanent or temporary Commissions, integrated proportionally by the parliamentary parties or blocs. The Commissions discuss and vote bills, held audiences, evaluate programmes and regional or national projects of development. The Federal Supreme Court, consisting of 11 judges, meets in Brasilia. The federal courts are located on each state and on the Federal District.

Other judiciary organs are the federal electoral courts, created to guarantee the electoral process and the labour courts. The federal judges are appointed for life. The justice in other states is administered on specific courts. The 26 states and the Federal District have their own organs, legislative and executive. The executive organs are headed by the governors, democratically elected. Geography Brazil is the fifth largest country of the World. It occupies almost half of the South America Continent and borders with all its countries, except Chile and Ecuador.

The largest part of the country has a low rate of inhabitants; although, in some of the regions in which a scant population density has traditionally existed, such as in the Amazons zone, are experimenting a very fast growth, together with the trees felling and the exhaustion of its resources.

Brazil can be divided in four geographical regions. The long and narrow Atlantic coastline is characterised by the coastal mountain ranges, which are enlarged between the Grande Do Soul and Bahia rivers; although, as of the Bahia north zone, the land becomes flatter. The high large lands, known as Brazilian Marsh or main tableland, which are enlarged through the largest interior south part of the Amazons Basin, are splashed by some little mountain range crossing by several rivers.

Two big hollows exist: the Paraguay Basin characterised by open wood, low wood and brushes; and the dense Amazon Basin jungle, to the southeast. The Amazon River is the longest river of the World, with 6. The richness and variety of the Brazilian fauna is amazing, locating the country at the top of the World in number of primates species, amphibious and plants, also it is the third in variety of birds and the fourth in reptiles and butterflies species. Although many of these species are in extinction risk due to the continuously devastation of the tropical jungle, to the desertification that affects the northeast, to the furtive hunting that suffers the marshy zone and the contamination of the coast zone.

The Brazilian climate varies according to the latitude and altitude of the zone. From the dryness of the interior, to the tropical climate of the Amazons and the eastern coast regions. Overall, it can be said that it is mainly tropical. It is a humid country, with weather changes, especially in the south. Brazilian seasons are opposite to the European and American ones, except in the north region. In all the country, variations in the dusting rate, temperature and humidity are produced, but only in the south of Brazil these changes are extreme among seasons.

The high lands, cooler and less humid, are prone to summer storms. The country is the biggest coffee producer in the World and owns great mineral resources; the exploitation of many of them was intensified during the decade.

Latin American and Caribbean Food and Cuisine

From the middle of XX century, an important process of industrialisation was begun, which led the country to became the tenth worldwide economic power. A mainly agricultural nation as Brazil was, in and decades, experienced a fast industrial growth , until decade achieved a diversify modern economy.

Big amounts of iron and coal were extracted and the production of chemicals products, steel and engine vehicles substantially grew. Among autochthonous and widely cultivated fruits, there are pineapple, figs custard apple, mangoes, bananas, guavas, grapes and oranges. Brazil is among the main worlwide producers of sugar cane, that is used to produce refined sugar and alcohol for fuel ;castor; cacao;wheat; and oranges.

Other important crops are: soy, tobacco, potato, cotton, rice, wheat, tapioca and bananas. Also, porks, fowl sing, sheep,goats, horses, donkeys, mules and oxen are raised. Among the most valuable products of the Brazilian woods many of them are stood up: aleurite, rubber, cera carnauba, algarrobe fibre, medicinal leaves, vegetable oils, resins, nuts and timber for construction and furniture. The lumber industry was rapidly developed during the and decades, at the same time the woods were cut down to build settlements. On the other hand, the fishing industry; although, at the beginning hindered because of the share capital shortage , grocery stores and preserving industries grew up considerably from the decade.

The mineral resources are wide diamonds, iron, coal, petroleum, gold ,tin , but the share capital shortage and the unsuitable infrastructure of transport stopped their development until the decade. The gold fever in the Amazonian jungle , unchanging from , has made of Brazil one of the largest worldwide producers. The iron mineral deposits of the country which are located in Itabira and other areas, are considered among the richest of the World. The tin rich deposits have made of Brazil one of the leaders producers of this metal.

Also, it is a great exporter of quartz crystals, monazite and beryllium. Magnesium, diamonds, chromium, zirconium, raw petroleum , natural gas, silver, bauxite and mica are extracted in big quantities. The valuable reserve of magnesite, graphite, titanium, copper, zinc, mercury and platinum are not exploited in big scale. Industries manufacture a wide range of articles. Big quantities of goods such as processed food , iron and steel, cement, knitting, tailoring , engine vehicles , chemical products, paper, ships and electrical equipment are produced. Culture The culture of the modern Brazil has been shaped from a rich past of ethnic traditions.

The first Portuguese settlers took many customs and words from the native American population. The carnival is a popular celebration in Brazil; the carnival of Rio has international fame because of its grandeur, colourfulness and spectacular of this profane celebration. Also, it has a variety of musical styles , some of them worldwide known , the samba has been made internationally popular in the decade. That folk dances, originated in Africa, have been rapidly spreadered out and as the time goes by, they took place to bossa-nova.

On the other hand , the states keep libraries and public museums in their capitals. The Geographical and Historical Brazilian Institute also owns tons of filling and, just as unique and weird books. However, around twenty million of catholic also practise some kind of ritual worship of African origin. The majority of native Americans profess traditional religions. The separation of the State from the Church is complete and formal. The official Language of Brazil is Portuguese. Also, Spanish, English, French, and more than de native dialects are spoken.

Especially in the cities of the south, many Brazilian speak German and Italian. It is located in the heart of South America, divided by Paraguay river in two regions: Eastern and Western. It shares with Bolivia, in America, the condition of not having maritime coastlines. It borders Argentina to the south and southwest, to the northwest with Brazil and to the northeast with Bolivia.

On August 15, , the National flag was created. The colours at the top narrow red, wide white , in the middle and at the bottom blue were the same that were used by the troops sent by Paraguay to River Plate during the British invasions. On November 25, , the Extraordinary Congress stipulated that the National Flag of Paraguay was designed in three equal horizontal stripes of red, white and blue colours.

History Paraguay declared its independence, overthrowing local Spanish authorities, on the daybarake of May 15, That was the only victory without bloodshed in the American historic emancipation. However, between to period, the country lived several wars such as the War of the Triple Alliance and the War with Bolivia, among others, that were weakening socially and economically the country.

After the independence, from to , Paraguay was governed by Dr. The main objective of the government of Dr. France represented the consolidation of the independence and the defence of the territorial integrity of Paraguay; the right of the free navigation in the rivers, the statement of the peace and the calmness of the country , isolating it to protect it from the reigning anarchy of the neighbour states.

As a part of this policy, the dictator forbade the citizens and foreigners to go out the country. To emigrate, a especial permission was needed. At the end of that period, he was reelected twice, one for three and another for ten years , and he was not able to complete this third stage of his presidency because of his decease, in September 10, Although he was nominally a president acting according to a republican constitution, he governed hard.

His government was, in general, directed with wise energy when developing material resources, and he provided the country with a new constitution and a modern army. Francisco Solano fulfilled an initial stage of the continuity to his father government tendency, until that the controversial political situation of the region generated the facts that moved on to a terrible dispute.

The intention to help Uruguay, threatened by an imminent Brazilian intervention to its delicate scene of internal divisions and the subsequent negative to the crossing of the Paraguayan troops through Argentinean territory, led to the unexpected failure to meet up the parties, which the three of them were declared against Paraguay.

The Chaco war was initiated from until During this conflagration, Paraguay and Bolivia fought for the Paraguayan Chaco because it was believed that natural gases and petroleum were plentiful. The Bolivian army, better equipped and numerous, invaded the Chaco region. That was really difficult because of the hard and unknown territory, and the burning temperature, which the Bolivian army was not accustomed to.

Although this army was more numerous and better equipped, as the war went by slowly, the Paraguayan were capable of expelling the invader army almost totally. The Chaco war was one of the most meaningful events of the Paraguayan history. The Paraguayan triumph over a superior enemy in almost all, but not in the liveliness in crucial moments.

With him,one of the longest dictatorship of the continent came to its end. He was the Latin-American governor, who was in the power longer after Fidel Castro. The constitution of June of established a democratic government system and improved the protection of the fundamental rights. On May,, the candidate of the Colorado Party, Juan Carlos Wasmosy, was elected as a the first civil president of the Paraguay in almost 40 years. The Paraguayan March meant ,for the majority of the population, the definitive historical event that the Paraguayan population would not accept to return to a dictatorship and it allowed the definitive return of the civic culture to Paraguay, until this moment ,subordinated more than half a century of the influence of governments and military actors in the political and economical life of the country.

The government of Gonzalez Macchi did not improve the Paraguayan economy and was characterised by constant corruption and a new finance crisis. The elected president initially reached an agreement with the opposite parties to renew the Supreme Court of Justice and to reform the state but this agreement was rapidly broken due to the structure of the state was not changed and the corruption facts continued in the same way as in the Gonzalez Macchi government. Government The Republic of Paraguay constitutes a Social State of Right, united, indivisible and decentralise adopting to its government a pluralist, participating and representative democracy, founded in the recognition of the human dignity.

The Executive Power is practised by the President of the Republic together with the Vice-president son who are elected by popular vote together , in the same voting ballot, for a term of office of five years, without any possibility of reelection. The president is the chief of the State and government of Paraguay. He has, among other attributions, the faculty of removing and naming the Ministers of the Executive Power according to his will who are the chiefs of the administration of its own portfolio in which ones, under the leadership of the President of the Republic promote and carry out a politics related to the subjects of their competency.

The meeting of all the Ministers, as an announcement of the President, is called Council of Ministers. The Chamber or Council of Ministers has at its end to coordinate the executive tasks, implulse the politic of the government and adopt collective decisions. The government of each department is practised by a Governor and by a Departmental Board, which is elected by direct vote of the citizens, who are situated in their respective departments , in coincidental elections with the general elections , and lasts five years in their functions.

The Governor represents The Executive Power in the execution of the national politics. The Legislative Parliament is practised by the Congress, composed by a Chamber of Senators high chamber , of 45 members and a Chamber of Deputies low chamber that consists of 80 deputies. The elections for the Congress are carried out in closed lists they do not vote for each deputy candidate or senator, but for a list presented by each political party simultaneously with the presidential election.

The deputies are elected by department while the senators are elected to national scale, both for a period of five years, and they could be reelected. The judiciary is in charge of the administration of justice and is practised by the Supreme Court and by the other courts and tribunals that establish the law. The Supreme Court is the highest tribunal of Paraguay.

The senate in accordance with the President designate to its nine members or Ministers, based on a shortlist of three candidates presented by the Magistracy Council , with a previous selection based on the suitability with the consideration of aptitudes and merits. Territorial and Political Organisation Paraguay is a United State that tend to the decentralisation in the way it establishes the constitution and the laws. For the effects of the political and administrative organisation of the State, the national territory is divided in departments, municipalities and districts that inside the limits of the constitution and the laws, enjoyed of the political autonomy, administrative and rule for the management of their own interests, and the autarchy in the collection and inversion of its resources.

Geography To the east of the Paraguay river, which divides the country in two regions , bush hills and plains covered by grass are observed. They are low range of mountains of smooth pelf which are made of granitic and esquitosas rocks covered by red soil that are very antique where a dense rainy jungle is naturally developed, has been seriously deforest throughout theXX century.

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Nowadays is the biggest hydroelectric power station of the world, generating the electicity that is consumed in almost all Paraguay. The climate is tropical and subtropical. Paraguay has a subtropical climate to warm in the Eastern region and a tropical climate in the Western; with the essential rainfall in the East regions, making it semiarid in the far West. The Eastern region is humid with plentiful of rainfall throughout the year.

Meanwhile, the Western region is dryer and there is shortage of water. Economy The fundamental economic sector is the primary, and being the agriculture the main economic activity. Tjhe agriculture and the livestock are the main sources of richness. The subsoil and the mineral resources are not worked enough; however, deposits of iron, manganese, copper, coal , mica and petroleum Chaco exist. Almost all the industry is moved on to the agriculture and the livestock , in the elaboration of yerba mate, vegetable oils, essence of "Petit grain", sugar making , meat and fur, and the manufacturing of wood.

The main revenue sources, with reference to exports, are contributed by the soy and the cotton. This mixed races has characteristics quite different to the ones performed in other american regions, in some of which this crossbeeding was not completed that why important groups of native descentents exist but important groups of native descendants keep the majority of their originated cultural and racial features, it is a population that is composed by spanish and other european descendants with their own ethnic and cultural characteristics.

The ones who speak this tongue are not natives, they are mixed race people with hispanic culture that use techniques of production, social and economic organisation of european origin. In terms of paraguayan music, it is one of the most peculiar and identifying expressions of Paraguay. The first two are more cheerful and fast than the conventional polka and the third one a little more slow and melancholic.

The most popular instruments are the harp and the guitar, the paraguayan harp was widely known in many countries of the world. Source: www. This geographical factor and also historical reasons determinated the name of the country and also happens to call the Uruguayans "orientales", although; as obvious Uruguay is a country that belongs to the Occidental Hemisphere. It is a country which territory is the second smallest in South America, with a surface of To the southeast it has coastlines along the Atlantic Ocean. Towards an economic crisis was begun which also damaged the public political institutions.

During the decade was a process of social and economical decreasing with an amazing increasing of the massive organisation of the popular sectors headed by the leftist parties, workmanship class and by the claim struggle of the students. In accordance with leaving behind the past and came back to the democratic system in peace, the majority political parties agreed to vote the "expiration law " that covered to all the members of the Army Forces accused of violation of the human rights between and , was approved by the parliament in December, In the following years a campaign to recollect signatures to impel a referendum with the intention of its derogation was carried out.

Before working on a vehicle, place the transmission in Neutral, set the parking brakes, and block the wheels. Before towing the vehicle, place the transmission in Neutral and lift the rear wheels off the ground, or disconnect the driveline to avoid damage to the transmission during towing. Engine-driven components such as Power Take-Off PTO units, fans and fan belts, driveshafts and other related rotating assemblies can be very dangerous.

Mack Trucks, Inc. Although every effort has been made to ensure that all information is as accurate as possible, some information may change without notice. All control units provide diagnostic fault logging accessible via a service tool , customer programming and programming audit trails that detail when and where programming took place.

Each EUP performs timing and fuel control functions that optimize engine performance for emissions, noise, fuel consumption and driveability. Each control unit should be mounted in an area that allows the following environmental requirements to be met during normal operation. The codes applicable to this publication are shown at the beginning of each component procedure as necessary, to guide you to specific component information. Refer to Figure 1. These transmissions are the next evolution of the durable triple countershaft transmission.

They consist of a compact main box that houses five nonsynchronized forward-speed gear sets plus a reverse gear set. The compound case of these transmissions is also a triple countershaft unit. The compound case consists of Lo-range and Hi-range gear sets that are air controlled by a range shift selector located on the shift lever. The main case and the bell housing are a onepiece casting, made from aluminum and heattreated for strength. PTO operation is off the countershaft fourth eighth speed gear that has 54 teeth.

All transmission bearings are housed in cast-iron bearing retainers or covers. The transmission gears are of the spur-type design and are in constant mesh with mating gears.

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The range selector directs air pressure to the range shift cylinder. Operating the selector causes a shift between Hi range or Lo range in the compound case. Four additional ratios are used with the compound in Lo range first, second, third and fourth. Four ratios are used with the compound in Hi range fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth for a total of nine speeds.

Refer to Figure 9. The compound range shift is accomplished using a plate-type synchronizer that is shifted by the range shift cylinder and a shift fork. This design distributes the load equally among the countershafts and keeps normal deflection and gear tooth loading to a minimum. To minimize churning, only the lower countershafts dip into the lubrication oil.

As the gears on the lower countershafts spin, a constant spray of oil is directed to all internal parts of the transmission. Troughs and passages cast into the inside of the case, capture and direct oil to the bearings. On transmissions that are not built with oil cooler pump system, the tube line openings are plugged or capped.

The main suction tube area contains a metal plug threaded into the case and the outlet fitting area receives a plastic cap. The magnetic plug removes ferrous metallic particles in the oil as the oil passes the plug. After passing the magnetic plug, the oil returns by gravity down into the transmission case sump. The magnetic plug is removable from the outside of the transmission without the necessity of draining the oil since this plug is above the oil level.

Always start in Lo range. This also applies to dynamometer testing. When the vehicle is stationary, do not shift into Hi range and then start moving. To avoid transmission damage, do not change range while in reverse. This unit is a range-shifted transmission that has eight forward highway speeds plus an extra Lo-speed gear in the Lo range.

This transmission features a Lo and Hi compound section controlled by an air-shift range selector located on the shift lever. The compound section is equipped with a synchronizer to facilitate Lo range and Hi range shifting. The Lo range provides five low ratios. Never attempt to move the vehicle from a stopped position in any gear higher than fourth speed gear.

Depending on the load, grade or road conditions, it might be necessary to start in Lo-speed gear or first, second or third speed gears. In Hi range there are four forward gears that can be shifted in the standard manner. Remember to double clutch when moving up or down through the gears. Reverse gear is used in Lo range only. With the shift lever in neutral, flip the air-shift range selector to the Lo range and then shift the transmission into reverse gear. Shift through second, third and fourth speed gears, double clutching between the gears.

When maximum engine RPM has been reached in fourth gear, flip the air-shift range selector to the Hi range preselect and then move the shift lever through neutral to fifth gear. As the shift lever passes through neutral, the transmission is placed into Hi range. Continue following the normal shifting sequence, double clutching through sixth, seventh and eighth gear. Do not move the air-shift range selector while moving in reverse. While still in fifth gear, flip the air-shift range selector to Lo range preselect and then move the shift lever through neutral to fourth gear.

As the shift lever passes through neutral, the transmission is placed into Lo range. Move the shift lever to third, second and first, double clutching between gears. Make sure not to overspeed the engine during downshifting. Damage to powertrain components can result. Position the vehicle for power take-off operation. Stop the vehicle and apply the parking brakes. Raise the vehicle wheels off the ground. Turn on the PTO. Flip the air-shift range selector to Hi range.

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Fully depress the clutch pedal and shift the transmission into reverse. Slowly release the clutch pedal until transmission range clutch engagement is heard, or if equipped, the range engagement indicator lamp lights. Fully depress the clutch pedal. Shift the transmission into eighth gear. Release the clutch pedal to begin PTO operation. Shift the transmission into neutral. The TLR transmission is shown for illustration purposes.

Compound Case Top Cover 4. Compound Main Drive Gear 5. Range Shift Cylinder Assembly 6. Rear Countershaft Bearing Cover 8. Rear Countershaft Assembly 9. Rear Mainshaft and Synchronizer Assembly Reverse Idler Gear Assembly Side-mounted PTO installed too tight or too loose c. Loose bell housing to flywheel housing capscrews d. Install new capscrews using Loctite.

Incorrect clutch driven discs used e. Install correct clutch driven discs. Gears worn, chipped, rough, cracked f. Mismatched carrier ratios h. Resonating ringing driveshaft i. Install suitable dampening material, high-speed balance driveshaft. Educate driver. Shift lever binding or has interference f. Poppet balls binding in holes g. Loose shifter or shift fork setscrews h. Worn spigot bearing j. Clutch brake ears broken k.

Clutch discs worn into main drive pinion l. Mainshaft snap ring or thrust washer failure m. Weak or broken shift rail poppet springs f. Bent or worn shift forks g. Replace sliding clutch and mating gear if clutch teeth are damaged. Tighten plug. O-rings in range shift cylinder leaking air pressure into transmission h. Clean system, replace bearings as needed, flush and refill with clean oil.

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Wrong grade of oil or contaminated oil b. Binding or seized driveshaft slip yoke d. Clean or replace as needed. Improper bearing preload e. Replace bearings and readjust bearing preload. Improper bearing installation f. Air lines too small c. Restricted or clogged filter in range shift valve d. Replace filter. Defective O-rings in range shift cylinder e. Not preselecting h.