Science Lab: The Life Cycles of Plants (Explorer Library: Language Arts Explorer)
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But the hard reality of geological formations and strange fossils needed scientific explanation. Charles Darwin 's Origin of Species replaced the assumption of constancy with the theory of descent with modification. Phylogeny became a new principle as "natural" classifications became classifications reflecting, not just similarities, but evolutionary relationships.
Wilhelm Hofmeister established that there was a similar pattern of organization in all plants expressed through the alternation of generations and extensive homology of structures. Polymath German intellect Johann Goethe — had interests and influence that extended into botany. In Die Metamorphose der Pflanzen he provided a theory of plant morphology he coined the word "morphology" and he included within his concept of "metamorphosis" modification during evolution, thus linking comparative morphology with phylogeny.
Though the botanical basis of his work has been challenged there is no doubt that he prompted discussion and research on the origin and function of floral parts. At the start of the 19th century the idea that plants could synthesise almost all their tissues from atmospheric gases had not yet emerged. The energy component of photosynthesis, the capture and storage of the Sun's radiant energy in carbon bonds a process on which all life depends was first elucidated in by Mayer , but the details of how this was done would take many more years.
The mechanism of photosynthesis remained a mystery until the midth century when Sachs, in , noted that starch was formed in green cells only in the presence of light and in he confirmed carbohydrates as the starting point for all other organic compounds in plants. Significant discoveries relating to nitrogen assimilation and metabolism, including ammonification , nitrification and nitrogen fixation the uptake of atmospheric nitrogen by symbiotic soil microorganisms had to wait for advances in chemistry and bacteriology in the late 19th century and this was followed in the early 20th century by the elucidation of protein and amino-acid synthesis and their role in plant metabolism.
With this knowledge it was then possible to outline the global nitrogen cycle. A vastly increased research force was now rapidly extending the horizons of botanical knowledge at all levels of plant organization from molecules to global plant ecology. There was now an awareness of the unity of biological structure and function at the cellular and biochemical levels of organisation. Botanical advance was closely associated with advances in physics and chemistry with the greatest advances in the 20th century mainly relating to the penetration of molecular organization.
On a more practical level research funding was now becoming available from agriculture and industry. In Chlorophylls a and b were separated by thin layer chromatography then, through the s and s, biochemists, notably Hans Krebs — and Carl — and Gerty Cori — began tracing out the central metabolic pathways of life. Between the s and s it was determined that ATP , located in mitochondria , was the source of cellular chemical energy and the constituent reactions of photosynthesis were progressively revealed. Then, in DNA was extracted for the first time.
Following the establishment of Mendel's laws, the gene-chromosome theory of heredity was confirmed by the work of August Weismann who identified chromosomes as the hereditary material. Also, in observing the halving of the chromosome number in germ cells he anticipated work to follow on the details of meiosis , the complex process of redistribution of hereditary material that occurs in the germ cells.
In the s and s population genetics combined the theory of evolution with Mendelian genetics to produce the modern synthesis. By the mids the molecular basis of metabolism and reproduction was firmly established through the new discipline of molecular biology. Genetic engineering , the insertion of genes into a host cell for cloning, began in the s with the invention of recombinant DNA techniques and its commercial applications applied to agricultural crops followed in the s.
There was now the potential to identify organisms by molecular " fingerprinting " and to estimate the times in the past when critical evolutionary changes had occurred through the use of " molecular clocks ". Increased experimental precision combined with vastly improved scientific instrumentation was opening up exciting new fields.
In Alexander Oparin — demonstrated a possible mechanism for the synthesis of organic matter from inorganic molecules. In the s it was determined that the Earth's earliest life-forms treated as plants, the cyanobacteria known as stromatolites , dated back some 3. Mid-century transmission and scanning electron microscopy presented another level of resolution to the structure of matter, taking anatomy into the new world of " ultrastructure ". Taxonomy based on gross morphology was now being supplemented by using characters revealed by pollen morphology , embryology , anatomy , cytology , serology , macromolecules and more.
The emphasis on truly natural phylogenies spawned the disciplines of cladistics and phylogenetic systematics. The grand taxonomic synthesis An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants of American Arthur Cronquist — was superseded when, in , the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group published a phylogeny of flowering plants based on the analysis of DNA sequences using the techniques of the new molecular systematics which was resolving questions concerning the earliest evolutionary branches of the angiosperms flowering plants.
The exact relationship of fungi to plants had for some time been uncertain. Several lines of evidence pointed to fungi being different from plants, animals and bacteria — indeed, more closely related to animals than plants. In the ss molecular analysis revealed an evolutionary divergence of fungi from other organisms about 1 billion years ago — sufficient reason to erect a unique kingdom separate from plants. The publication of Alfred Wegener 's — theory of continental drift gave additional impetus to comparative physiology and the study of biogeography while ecology in the s contributed the important ideas of plant community, succession , community change, and energy flows.
Building on the extensive earlier work of Alphonse de Candolle, Nikolai Vavilov — from to produced accounts of the geography, centres of origin, and evolutionary history of economic plants. In reviewing the sweep of botanical history it is evident that, through the power of the scientific method, most of the basic questions concerning the structure and function of plants have, in principle, been resolved. Now the distinction between pure and applied botany becomes blurred as our historically accumulated botanical wisdom at all levels of plant organisation is needed but especially at the molecular and global levels to improve human custodianship of planet earth.
The most urgent unanswered botanical questions now relate to the role of plants as primary producers in the global cycling of life's basic ingredients: energy, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, and ways that our plant stewardship can help address the global environmental issues of resource management , conservation , human food security , biologically invasive organisms , carbon sequestration , climate change , and sustainability. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Outline of botany. Main article: Neolithic Revolution.
Further information: Cultivated plant taxonomy and Herbal. Main article: Theophrastus. Main article: Roman agriculture. Further information: Herbalism , Chinese medicine , Byzantine medicine , and Islamic medicine.
History of botany
Main article: Herbal. Further information: Botanical garden , List of botanical gardens , and Herbarium. Main article: Flora. Main article: Plant geography. Further information: List of systems of plant taxonomy , Plant taxonomy , and History of plant systematics.
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Further information: Microscopy and Plant anatomy. Main article: Plant physiology. Further information: Plant sexuality and Alternation of generations. Further information: Ecology and Plant community. Further information: Plant anatomy and Cell theory. Main article: Transpiration. Main article: Cell theory. Main article: Evolution. Further information: Soil plant atmosphere continuum and Photosynthesis. Main article: Nitrogen fixation. Main article: Molecular biology. Further information: Ultrastructure and Palynology. Main article: Biogeography.
International Botanical Congress History of plant systematics Botanical illustration History of phycology List of botanists List of botanists by author abbreviation. See also: Bibliography of botany. Books [ edit ] History of science [ edit ] Harkness, Deborah E. The Jewel house of art and nature: Elizabethan London and the social foundations of the scientific revolution.
New Haven: Yale University Press. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Majumdar, G. In Chattopadhyaya, Debiprasad ed. The history of botany and allied sciences in India c. Sivin, Nathan ed. Science and Civilisation in China, Vol. Ogilvie, Brian W. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Stafleu, Frans A. Linnaeus and the Linnaeans.
Utrecht: International Association of Plant Taxonomy. History of botany, agriculture and horticulture [ edit ] Arber, Agnes [; 2nd ed. Stearn, William T. Herbals: their origin and evolution. A chapter in the history of botany, 3rd ed. Conan, Michel, ed. Baroque garden cultures: emulation, sublimation, subversion.
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Retrieved 21 February Erichsen-Brown, Charlotte Courier Corporation. Ewan, Joseph; Arnold, Chester Arthur A short history of botany in the United States. Hafner Publishing Co. Fahd, Toufic Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science. London: Routledge. Fischer, Hubertus; Remmert, Volker R.
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Fries, Robert Elias A short history of botany in Sweden. Egerton, Frank N. Landmarks of Botanical History: Part 1. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Landmarks of Botanical History 1. Prior to A. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. Greene, Edward Lee b. Landmarks of Botanical History: Part 2. Harvey-Gibson, Robert J. Outlines of the history of botany. London: A. Retrieved 29 April London: Elsevier Academic Press. Henrey, Blanche British botanical and horticultural literature before Vols 1—3. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jackson, Benjamin D. London: Longmans, Green. Jacobson, Miriam University of Pennsylvania Press. Morton, Alan G. London: Academic Press. Meyer, Ernst H. Geschichte der Botanik. Retrieved Rakow, Donald; Lee, Sharon, eds. Public garden management. Hoboken, N. Reed, Howard S. A Short History of the Plant Sciences. New York: Ronald Press. Reynolds Green, Joseph History of Botany — Oxford: Clarendon Press. Sachs, Julius von Geschichte der Botanik vom Jahrhundert bis Munich: Oldenbourg. Retrieved 13 December Sachs, Julius von .
Jahrhundert bis [ History of botany ]. Garnsey, revised by Isaac Bayley Balfour. A history of botany ; being a continuation of Sachs History of botany, Stace, Clive A. Plant taxonomy and biosystematics 2nd. Vavilov, Nicolai I. Origin and Geography of Cultivated Plants. Williams, Roger L. Winterborne, Jeffrey Hydroponics: indoor horticulture. Guildford: Pukka Press. Woodland, Dennis W. Contemporary Plant Systematics.
New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Antiquity [ edit ] Baumann, Hellmut . Timber Press. Hardy, Gavin; Totelin, Laurence Ancient Botany. Abingdon: Routledge. Raven, J. Stearn, W.
Plants and plant lore in ancient Greece. Oxford: Leopard's Press. Thanos, Costas A. In Karamanos, A. Athens: Fragoudis. British botany [ edit ] Barlow, Horace Mallinson Old English herbals Department of Plant Sciences, Cambridge University. Gunther, Robert Theodore Early British botanists and their gardens, based on unpublished writings of Goodyer, Tradescant, and others. Oxford University Press. Hoeniger, F. David; Hoeniger, J.
MIT Press. Charlottesville : Folger Books. Oliver, Francis W. Makers of British Botany. Raven, Charles E. John Ray, naturalist: his life and works 2nd ed. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press. English naturalists from Neckham to Ray: a study of the making if the modern world. Walters, Stuart M. The shaping of Cambridge botany: a short history of whole-plant botany in Cambridge from the time of Ray into the present century. Cambridge University Press. Willes, Margaret The making of the English gardener.
Plants, Books and Inspiration, Cultural studies [ edit ] Bethencourt, Francisco; Egmond, Florike, eds. Cultural exchange in Early Modern Europe. Volume 3 Correspondence and Cultural Exchange in Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Fara, Patricia Cambridge: Icon Books. Retrieved 22 February George, Sam Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Retrieved 23 February Goldgar, Anne Tulipmania: money, honor, and knowledge in the Dutch golden age. Kelley, Theresa M. Clandestine marriage botany and Romantic culture. Baltimore, Md. Retrieved 6 March Page, Judith W. Women, literature, and the domesticated landscape: England's disciples of Flora, Pavord, Anna The Tulip.
London: Bloomsbury Publishing. The naming of names: the search for order in the world of plants. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing. Shteir, Ann B. Cultivating women, cultivating science: Flora's daughters and botany in England, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved 18 February Thomas, Vivian; Faircloth, Nicki Shakespeare's Plants and Gardens: A Dictionary. Bloomsbury Publishing.
Botanical art and illustration [ edit ] Kusukawa, Sachiko University of Chicago Press. The flowering of Florence: botanical art for the Medici. Washington: National Gallery of Art. Historical sources [ edit ] Gerard, John The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes. London: John Norton. Retrieved 26 November Johnson, Thomas, ed. Retrieved 19 February Johnson, Thomas Fuchs, Leonhart De Historia Stirpium Commentarii Insignes.
Basileae: In officina Isingriniana.
Retrieved 20 February Pulteney, Richard London: T. Penny Cyclopedia — London: Charles Knight. Penny Cyclopaedia vol. V Blois—Buffalo. New York: Appleton. Bibliographic sources [ edit ] Johnston, Stanley H. Kent State University Press. Taxonomic literature: a selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types.
Articles [ edit ] Bruns, Tom Bibcode : Natur. Johnson, Dale E. Singer, Charles The Edinburgh Review. Discusses the life cycle of plants, examines how they survive in the extreme heat and cold, and explores how new plants. Have questions about this item, or would like to inquire about a custom or bulk order? If you have any questions about this product by Cherry Lake Pub, contact us by completing and submitting the form below. If you are looking for a specif part number, please include it with your message.
Translate This Website. International Translation Network. Product Description Discusses the life cycle of plants, examines how they survive in the extreme heat and cold, and explores how new plants develop.